Origin of Mogaveeras
Mogaveera Community
Mogaveera Habitats
Mogaveera Customs
Festivals Observed
Occupations of Mogaveeras
Mogaveera Organizations
Mogaveera Religious Practices
Prominent Mogaveeras
Interpretation of Data
Appreciation of Website / Book


Traditional Mogaveera Organizations
Mogaveera Grama Sabhas
Apex Bodies of Mahila Samaja
Mogaveera Samyukta Patna
Three Hobalies
Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (DKMMS)
Apex Body of Bagwadi Hobali
Taluka/District Level Youth Organizations
Important Charitable Institution
Other Mogaveera Institutions in State of Karnataka
Mogaveera Institutions at State of Maharashtra
Special Survey Report of Uchila Village
Organizations of Mogaveeras Abroad
Mogaveeras settled in adjacent Villages etc.
Summary of Mogaveera Organizations/Institutions

Traditional Mogaveera Organization

Under the heading “Traditional Mogaveera Organizations” all the Mogaveera organizations of 353 Mogaveera villages, such as, Grama Sabhas, Samyukta Patnas, Hobalies , Apex Bodies of Hobalies, Mogaveera Mahila Sabhas , and Bhajana Mandiras etc., whose membership is inherent on birth, are dealt with. In other words, Mogaveera men and women are automatically members of their respective traditional organizations.

Mogaveera Grama Sabhas

Each Mogaveera village has its Grama Sabha and every male above the age of 18 years is eligible to become its member. Some of these Sabhas are registered under Society’s Act, 1886. The Grama Sabhas are affiliated to Samyukta Patna, Samyutka Patnas are further affiliated to Hobali and a few Hobalies form Sarva Hobali Sabha. The Grama Sabhas, Samyukta Patnas, Hobalies and Sarva Hobali Sabhas regulate Mogaveera community affairs, such as, fishing activities, religious affairs, supervises all ceremonies from birth to death and resolve domestic disputes between its members and in many cases criminal offences also.

Administrative set up

In the past, hereditary Gurikaras (inherited by nephew from uncle) were in charge of Grama Sabah . But, later on, say from around 1950, elected managing committee of members took over the administration of Grama Sabhas . Now, the system of Gurikara is ornamental and can be termed as non-existent in majority of the villages. In many a villages, families of Gurikaras are not prepared to accept the position as against earlier practice of bidding for Gurikara position.

Supervision & Regulation

Most important point to remember here is that a set of rules regulating the fishing activities were in place earlier. For example, for Rampani, Kairampani, Y-Bale, Patte-Bale etc., major fishing operations, could only be carried out in day time, particularly between sunrise and sunset. There were sub-rules and precedents were in place to enforce this system. Only individuals were allowed to fish in the sea shores in the night time. The ban on night fishing by major fishing methods helped to conserve the fish stock and provided sufficient rest for fishermen.

Income & Resources

Mogaveera Grama Sabha derived its income by way of contribution of a portion of their fishing income by fishing units, such as, Bhisana, Pattebale, Y-Bale, Rampani, Kairampani etc. Here, a portion of the income is directly set apart when the income is distributed among the members and paid directly to the Grama Sabah. This is, perhaps, the first instance of tax is deducted at source and paid directly to Grama Sabhas which can be compared with Tax Deduction at Source (TDS) under Income Tax Act which was introduced later. Some Grama Sabhas also earn income from investments and assets created in course of time

Community Service

Many a times, a male member in a family is expected to render service, such as, for bringing out and putting in the wooden car ( Ratha) of the temple, participate in temple pooja known as Bali by carrying light known as Illaal . Similarly, at the time of marriage in any house within the Grama Sabha , a male member (on rational basis) is required to render service for preparation, cooking and serving food. Similarly, in case of death, all the funeral arrangements are also required to be attended. At times, a lady member from each family is also required to participate in such ceremonies. In many villages, attending Bhajana Mandira is compulsory. These services are known as Buttipuli and are compulsory; failing which some penalties may to be levied. In a way, the benefit of this system was available to all the families and it worked well. It served the whole community to discharge its common needs and individuals/families a helping hand in need.

Court of Original Jurisdiction

In a sense, Grama Sabhas used to be court of original jurisdiction. The disputes between two Grama Sabhas or major fishing entities, Rampani , generally settled at the level of Samyukta Patna .

Reconciliatory Proceedings

Generally, Gurikaras /Office bearers of Grama Sabha preside over the proceedings assisted by jurors. Later stage, even written complaints and rejoinders by the complainant and defendant were taken on record before adjudicating the dispute. Method followed to resolve the disputes are advisory and conciliatory in nature. Moral authority of the community is brought to bear upon the litigants. Attempts used to be made to have a consensus acceptable for both the parties as far as possible so that future conflicts are avoided.


Minimum punishments were imposed, such as, allowing the offender to pray for pardon and offences compounded on prostrating (seeking pardon) before the Grama Sabha . In some cases offending party is ordered to put some offerings in kind or money as penalty into the village temple or some monetary penalties are collected. Reforming the offender and pacifying of the aggrieved party used to be theme of the settlement. Harsh punishment Manna used to be awarded and the offending party was barred from participating in the community activities which will continue till the judgment is complied with. This kind of punishment is now rare and also cannot be enforced due to many reasons.

Appeal to Higher Forums

The offended party (an individual or Mogaveera Organization) can appeal to the higher forum, i.e. Samyukta Patna, Hobali and Apex Body. The procedure followed is the same as explained above. Earlier, the final court of appeal used to be before the Kulaguru at Bennekuduru Temple which is final and binding on all the parties. This system of community justice is precursor to present day Lok Adalath and proposed Village Panchayat Courts. In good old days, neither members of Mogaveera community went to court nor did police enter Mogaveera villages for investigation of crime.

Charity Work

Charity begins at home and self help is the best help appears to be the guiding principles followed by the Mogaveera elders. Considerable sum out of the income used to be spent on maintenance and annual poojas village deities, Bhajana Mandiras , educational and other activities for the benefit of their members. A note worthy aspect is the amount of money, time and energy spent on educating the members’ children by supporting Fisheries Schools, and later starting other schools and colleges etc. Improvement in literacy and access to higher education for the members of Mogaveera community can be attributed to the so called illiterate people who visualized the need to spend their hard earned money for the future benefit of their children. Mogaveera Sabhas encouraged youths to form various supplementary charitable institutions, such as, Youth Education Organizations, Ex-Student’s Association, Vyayama Shala (Gym), etc. For the benefit of women, Mahila Sabhas were formed and they are serving the interests of their members. Some Grama Sabhas purchase rice in whole sale market during harvest time at cheaper price and distribute it to its members with a facility to pay for the same later from their future earnings. List of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas (Kudiges) , Mahila Samaja, Daivasthana, Bhajana Mandira , Schools and other institutions are given under the chapter “Appendices”.

Support for Fisheries Schools

Fisheries Department of Madras Presidency had created 36 primary/higher primary/ schools and 15 high schools. Few high schools became Junior colleges also for the fishermen community which had helped the Mogaveera community to get educated. It should also be noted that many Mogaveera Grama Sabhas have participated and invested considerable money, time and energy in the construction and maintenance of the fisheries schools. These aspects are further discussed in Chapter “Mogaveera Organizations” and a list of educational institutions is given in Chapter “Appendices” under “Appendix IV – Mogaveera Educational & Other Institutions”.

Mogaveera Samyukta Patnas


Mogaveera Grama Sabhas are affiliated to Samyukta Patnas (units of villages). ‘ Samyukta’ means group (a Sanskrit word) and ‘ Patna’ means hamlet (village) in Tulu. The word ‘Pattana’ in Kannada means city. These groups of villages also played significant role in the affairs of Mogaveera community.

Origin of Samyukta Patna

Mogaveera Grama Sabhas were the first institutions formed by the Mogaveera community. The groups of Grama Sabhas have been formed for the purpose of having larger units of Mogaveera villages. The collective fishing efforts came into being when more than one unit of fishing required. Such a necessity came up when Y-Bale operation started. Fishing by way of Y-Bale required co-ordinate efforts from more than one Jodi (pair of two boats) of fishing units. Therefore, the first group was formed within the Grama Sabha and later extended to adjacent villages. These groups came to be recognized as Samyukta Patna of Nalkuru Patna (four villages), Ealuru (seven villages), Hadinalku Patna (fourteen villages) etc. All the Y-Bale Jodies of a Samyukta Patna worked as a unit of apex co-operative society while fishing and distribution of earnings. Please see for more details of group fishing of Y-Bale and the reason behind the group of villages being formed are explained at sub-heading Y-Bale in the Chapter "Occupations of Mogaveeras".


Management of Samyukta Patna is with the Managing Committee elected by the representing members deputed by the Grama Sabhas . The income is derived by contribution from the member Grama Sabhas and income from assets and interests from deposits. It should also be noted that some of these Samyukta Patnas own properties and have their own independent offices. They have also taken up independent social development programs for the benefit of their members.

Three Hobalies


Mangalore Hobali, Barkuru Hobali and Bagwadi Hobali are the three Hobalies of Mogaveera Community. Three Hobalies roughly corresponds to three Talukas i.e. Mangalore Taluka (Mangalore Hobali ), Udupi Taluka (Barkuru Hobali ) and Kundapura Taluka (Bagwadi Hobali ).

Mangalore Hobali

Samyukta Patnas in turn are affiliated to a Hobali . Mangalore Hobali consisting of three Samyukta Patnas, i.e. Mangalore Hadinalku (14) Patna , Suratkal Aaidu (5) Patna and Mulky Nalku (4) Patna . Total number of villages in Mangalore Hobali 29 villages. The summery of composition of apex bodies gives further details.

Barkur Hobali

Barkur Hobali consists of seven Samyukta Patnas i.e., Hejmadi (7) Eluru , Kadipatna Nadipatna (2) Patna, Kapu Nalku (4) Patna , Udyavara Hadhinalku (14) Patna , Maple (7) Eluru ,Thonse (4) Nalkuru , Barkuru Samyukta Sabha and Barkuru Mahasabha consists of 82 Grama Sabhas . The number of villages in Barkuru Hobali is 132. The summery of composition of apex bodies gives further details.

Bagwadi Hobali

Bagwadi Hobali villages are in Kundapura Taluka. There are around 192 Mogaveera villages. Some villages are situated in sea front but majority of the villages are situated deep inside and some are even beyond N.H.17 (66) and Konkan Railway tracks. Unlike Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies , Bagwadi Hobali does not have Samyukta Patnas.

Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha

Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (DKMMS) is the Apex Body of Mangalore   Hobali (with 3 Samyukta Patnas ) & Barkur Hobali (with 7 Samyukta Patnas ) totaling 10 Samyukta Patnas     and represents 161 Grama Sabhas . The details are given below:

Formation of DKMMS

Mangalore Hobali and Barkur Hobali have formed an apex body known “Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha”. The process of drafting the constitution of DKMMS said to have been started in the year 1923. On 26th August, 1924, 164 representatives of the Grama Sabhas and 156 other members (audience) have attended the meeting which was presided over by Shri Madhava Mangala Poojarya, Kuluguru . Selected portion of the circular letter is reproduced below.

Memorandum of Association of Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies have been accepted and was registered on 26th June 1926 under Societies Act 1860 (S. No. 1 of 1926-27). The registered office was shown as ‘ Basava Marakala Bhavan’, Kolachi Kambla, Bappanadu, Mulky Post, Mangalore Taluka. The Memorandum of Association (M.A.) states (in clause 3) that this Sangha is of ‘Mogera’ or ‘Mogaveera’ community of Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies and formed for their benefit.

Aims and Objectives

The main purposes (objectives) of the Sangha are to renovate Shree Kulamahasthri Amma Temple at Bennekuduru and work for the betterment of ‘Mogera’ or ‘Mogaveera’ Community.

Few important facts recorded in the M.A. are worth noting. One is, that all the assets of Shree Kulamahasthri Amma temple at Bennekuduru belong to DKMMS and the second that the appointment and continuation of Kulaguru as main priest of the temple are to be decided by the DKMMS and in case, for any reason, the Kulaguru Parampara is discontinued, the new Kulaguru should be appointed by the DKMMS preferably from one of the members of Kulaguru family. DKMMS was to take necessary steps to regulate all aspect of life of Mogaveeras and take necessary steps to develop the living standards of Mogaveera community.

Signatories of M.A.

The M.A. was signed by eighteen prominent people including Shriman Madhava Mangala Poojarya, Nephew of Shriman Annappa Mangala Poojarya. A fact which should be noted here is that many of the people were shown as nephew of (instead of son of) while stating their names. Shriman Madhava Mangala Poojarya was shown as Trustee and President of DKMMS. A complete list of eighteen members is incorporated in the Chapter “Prominent Mogaveeras” under the heading “Mogaveera Social Workers”.

Composition of Organizations.

The M.A was not only a registered document but also a comprehensive document recording the existing structure of Mogaveera Community organizations. The four components of the Sangha are stated as (i) Grama Sabha (ii) Samyukta Patna (iii) Hobali Grama Representative Sabha and (iv) Sarva (All ) Hobali Grama Representative Mahasabha (SHGRM). The M.A. of the Sangha also lays down the compositions of these four components. These guidelines are also followed by many affiliated organizations in their constitution.

Noble Social objectives

Framers of the code of conduct were enlightened people who saw far ahead of their time. Among the rules framed was (i) the compulsory schooling of at least one child from each house-hold, (ii) conducting census of Mogaveeras in villages of two Hobalies, (iii) prohibiting children visiting liquor shops, (iv) not to serve non-vegetarian food meals at marriage functions and other ceremonial occasions (v) to restrict the number of persons attending betrothal ceremony at the bride’s residence to five only etc. The DKMMS also resolved to build up a fund of Rs.1 lakh during the course of next 12 years period to improve education and economic conditions of Mogaveeras and also to meet the expenses of renovating Shree Kulamahasthri Amma Temple at Bennekuduru.

Direct Representation

The novel idea propagated was that in the apex body, proportional direct representation of each village was to be ensured. In effect, the SHGRM is the general body of DKMMS and SHGRM appoints four Trustees, Managing Committee and an Executive Committee for administering DKMMS.

Administrative Set-up

The administration of SHGRM/DKMMS was in the hands of four Trustees who are part of the twenty one members elected by deputed representatives from Grama Sabhas to SHGRM and executive functions were allotted to an Executive (Working) Committee consisting of eleven members out of the Managing Committee.

Mogaveera Census

“Mogaveera Khaneshmaari Lekka – 1926” was initiated and a circular letter prescribing a questionnaire with 21 questions was issued asking the village Sabhas to furnish the details. The main questions relate to number of houses, occupation, number of people, sex, marital status, education, occupation etc., with several sub-questions. The Grama Sabhas were also requested to submit village-wise summary for consolidation at Hobali level . A few portion of the circular is reproduced below:

However, it is difficult to say as to whether such census did take place. I do not have any data or any documentary reference by any source.
Amendment to M.A in 1960

The M.A registered in 1926 was amended and reregistered on 6th December, 1959 in which the head quarters  of DKMMS was shown at Mahalakshmi Temple Complex, Uchila, Bada Grama, Udupi Taluka. Along with the maintenance of Shree Kulamahasthri Amma Temple, Bennekuduru , DKMMS also took over the maintenance of Shree Mahalakshmi Temple, Uchila.  Even though basic structure of M.A. was retained, a significant change was introduced so far as the election and constitution of the Managing Committee. The Office of Trustees was abolished.

Composition of Managing Committee
Managing Committee of DKMMS consists of proportionate representation to all the Samyukta Patnas as provided in the constitution. There are 19 elected members from ten Samyukta Patnas . Three members are co-opted by the Managing Committee. One representative from Shree Kulamahasthri Amma Temple at Bennekuduru ( Mogaveera Kulaguru used to represent during his life time) and two lady members representing Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Sangha are included. The total number of Managing Committee members is increased to 25 instead of 21 as per old M.A. A sub-committee known as ‘ Kshethradalitha Committee’ to supervise the day-to-day proceedings of Shree Mahalakshmi Temple was added. The committee members are nominated by the Managing Committee of DKMSS.

Improper representation

No. of villages in a Samyukta Patna , No. of members in Samyukta Sabha , No. of representatives in Sarva Hobali Sabha and No. of representatives in the Managing Committee of DKMMS are given below:

Name of the Samyukta Patna

No. of Villages

No. of Members

No. of Rep.in S.H.G.B.

No. of Rep.in DKMMS

1 Mangalore Hadinalku (14) Patna
2 Suratkal Aaidu (5) Patna
3 Mulky Nalku 4) Patna
  Kadike Village*
4 Hejmadi (7) Eluru
5 Padubidri (2) Aradu Uru
6 Kapu Nalku (4) Patna
7 Udyavara Hadinalku (14) Patna
8 Malpe (7) Eluru
9 Thonse Nalku (4) Patna
10 Barkur Mahasabha (72)
  Barkur Mahasabha** 30


All data is not available in respect of 30 villages of Barkur Mahasabha (Samyukta Patna).
As already stated above, in the apex body of DKMMS all the Grama Sabhas and all Samyukta Sabhas have not been properly represented.

Apex Body of Bagwadi Hobali

Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Sangha

Mogaveera villages of Bagwadi Hobali had formed “ Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Sangha” in the year 1927. This institution was responsible for renovation of Shree Mahishasuramardini Temple at Bagwadi at the initial stage. Later, the activities of this institution declined. This institution appears to be not in existence now.

Mogaveera Mahajana Seva Sangha, (Bagwadi Hobali 1941) Mumbai

The prominent people from Bagwadi Hobali residing at Mumbai started Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Sangha, Mumbai on 9th March, 1941. Among other things, the administration of Shree Mahishasuramardini Temple was taken over by this newly formed institution. The objects were to forge unity in the community, spread education among the people and to work for the welfare of the community.


The name of “Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Sangha” was changed into “Mogaveera Mahajana Seva Sangha (Bagwadi Hobali 1941)” (MMSSBH) in the year 1954 while getting the institution registered under the Society’s Act, 1860.

Aims and Objectives of MMSSBH               

To work for the upliftment of Mogaveera community in general and for the benefit of Mogaveeras of Bagwadi Hobali in particular
To aid and assist Mogaveera students by opening educational institutions, granting scholarships, opening libraries & reading rooms, constructing hostels, supporting cultural activities
To maintain Shree Mahisasuramardini Temple, Bagwadi

To open branches for propagating aims & objectives of MMSSBH

To assist Mogaveeras in all the fields of economy to enable them to become self sufficient

To try to eradicate unnatural practices, bad habits and encourage the habit of savings and

To achieve the above purposes, to organize meeting, conferences etc.

Membership of MMSSBH

Mogaveeras of Bagwadi Hobali can enroll them by paying certain amount (shown in bracket) as Great Grand Patron (Rs.5000), Grand Patron (Rs.1000), Patron (Rs.500), Life Member (Rs.100), Ordinary Member (Rs.15). Any other person, who subscribes to the aims & objectives of MMSSBH can enroll himself as ‘Well Wisher’ of the Sangha in the categories of Well Wisher Great Grand Patron (Rs.5,000), Well Wisher Grand Patron (Rs.1000) and Well Wisher Patron (Rs.500).

Branch Office at Kundapur

A Branch was established at Kundapur and several activities started for the benefit of the Mogaveera community.

Religious Activities

MMSSBH had renovated and rebuilt Shree Mahisasuramardhini Temple, Bagwadi and made it an important Mogaveera community temple. The description of this temple is given in the Chapter “Mogaveera Religious Practices”. The pictures of the temple and deities are given in the Chapter “Mogaveera Religious Practices”.

Social Service 

MMSSBH had started ‘ Seva Dala’ (Voluntary Service Unit), Reading Room & Library, conducts debating sessions.

To encourage cultural activities and supports drama and ‘Yakshgana’ artists, it started ‘Kanchani Kala Kendra’

MMSS had started its own youth wing to draw youth into social services which is involved in social service activities.

Lady’s wing known as ‘Stri Shakti’ to specially work for the benefit of women which provides useful guidance in all fields of their activities.
MMSSBH had also started a Kannada monthly magazine known as ‘Shree Mahisasura Mardhini’ which is published from Kundpur.

Address of the magazine

Mogaveera Bhavan, Chikansale Road, Kundapur Taluka, Udupi District, State of Karnataka (India) PIN Code 576201

Tel - 0825-231756.

Status of Grama Sabhas, Samyukta Patnas & three Hobalies

A statement giving details of three Samyukta Patnas of Mangalore Hobali and seven Samyukta Patnas of Barkur Hobali , and total number of villages of Bagwadi Hobali (there is no Samyukta Patna ) and Grama Sabhas are given below:

Name of the Samyukta Patna
Number of Villages
  Mangalore Hobali
1 Mangalore Hadinalku (14)Patna
2 Suratkal Aaidu (5) Patna
3 Mulky Nalku(4) Patna
  Barkur Hobali
4 Hejmadi Elu (7) Patna
5 Kadipatna-Nadipatna(Samyukta Patna)
6 Kapu Nalku (4) Patna
7 Udyavara Hadinalku (14) Patna
8 Malpe Eluru(7)
9 Thonse Nalku (4) Patna
10 Barkur Mahasabha
  Bagwadi Hobali
11 Bagwadi Hobali Kudiges (villages)
Total Villages


Village Kadike which was part of Mulky Nalku Patna now is not part of any Samyukta Patna .

Location of Mogaveera Villages

The data consisting of all 353 Mogaveera Grama Sabhas/Kudiges with names of Mogaveera villages, post office, PIN code No. and Panchayat/Municipality are listed as Appendix I and given in Chapter “Appendices”.  Approximately, 35 Grama Sabhas are in municipal areas and about 5 Grama Sabhas are in City Panchayats and balance 313 Grama Sabhas are in Grama Panchayats.

Special Survey Report of Uchila Village


Above data only give the general information about all the Mogaveera villages. An attempt is made to give complete details of village Uchila with analysis of the data regarding people living both in native place & outside giving profiles of (i) age (ii) Education and (iii) occupation of male and female population.

Basic data of village Uchila

Uchila village has its own Mogaveera Grama Sabha. This Grama Sabha is part of Samyuykta Patna known as Kaup Nalku Patna, Hobali known as Barkuru Hobali and Sarva Hobali Sabha known as Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha.
Uchila village has its own Post Office known as Post Uchila and the PIN Code is 574117. Uchila village is part of Bada Grama Panchayat, part of Udupi Taluka and District in State of Karnataka.
Information in respect of Educational, Religious and Other Institutions.

Information of Mogaveera (Native Place)

Educational Institutions
1) Mahalakshmi English Medium Primary & High School managed by D.K.Mogaveera Hithsadana Vedike, Uchila.

2)  Balwadi School, managed By Uchila Grama Sabha

Religious institutions
1)  Shree Mahalakshmi Temple, managed by DKMMS

2)  Jarandaya Daiva Sthana, managed by Uchila Grama Sabha

3)  Bhajana Mandira managed by Uchila Grama Sabha

Other institutions
1)  Mahila Sabha, Uchila.

2)   Vidya Pracharaka Sangha

Any other information
Uchila village has beautiful Beaches with tourist cottages and cool coconut orchards

Age Profile of people

Upto 4 years

5 to 21 years

22 to 60 years

Above 60 years.



Education Profile of people

Not literate
Upto 7th sth
to SSC
11th to 12th

Occupation Profile

Self Employed
The data regarding the Mogaveeras of Uchila residing outside the village are being compiled and will be added later.

Mogaveeras Settled in Adjacent Villages

Many Mogaveera families settled down outside at adjacent villages which are not included in the above list of 353 Mogaveera villages. Many people continue to be members of their old village Sabhas . Some of the names of such villages are given but are not exhaustive.

Mangalore city
Udupi city

This list can include many more names and may help to locate recent Mogaveera settlements outside their traditional villages.

Mogaveera Women’s Organizations

Mahila Samajas of Mangalore & Barkur Hobalies

In most villages of Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies Mahila Sabhas are in existence. The membership of the Sabha is open to all the female above the age of 18 years. It may be noted that in the Grama Sabhas only males are allowed to become members. To take up welfare of women in the village, Mahila Sabhas are formed. They collect voluntary donations to fund their activities. Names 52 Mahila Sabhas affiliated to Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Sangha, Uchila and 12 Mogaveera Mahila Samajas which are not part of Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Samaja, Uchila are given in Appendix II in Chapter “Appendices”.

Mahila Sthri Shakti of Bagwadi Hobali

Female members of Mogaveera community have an organization known as ‘Mogaveera Sthri Shakti’ representing the women of all Mogaveera Kudiges of Bagwadi Hobali . Mogaveera Sthri Shakti has five Ghatakas (units) to serve the interests of women members.

Apex Bodies of Mahila Sabhas

Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Sangha

All Mahila Sabhas of Mogaveera villages are affiliated to an apex body known as Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Sangha. A representative of apex body of Mahila Sabha is also a member of Managing Committee of DKMMS. At present 52 (fifty two) Mogaveera Mahila Sabhas are affiliated to Dakishina Kannada Mogaveera Mahila Sangha . A few Mahila Samaja/Mathru Sangha etc. exists which are not yet affiliated to Dakishina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha, Uchila and their available names are also included in the “Appendix II” of the Chapter “Appendices”.

Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Mahila Sabha

A women’s wing of Bagwadi Hobali known as ‘Sthri Shakti’ is also in existence to encourage the women’s participation.

Branch Offices of Traditional Mogaveera Organization

Several Grama Sabhas have their branch offices at Mumbai. These Grama Sabha branches were responsible for development in their respective villages. The list of branch offices of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas is give below:

Thenka Yermal
Bada Yermal

There are 161 Mogaveera Grama Sabhas in Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies corresponding to Mangalore and Udupi Talukas. But, there are only 34 Mogaveera Grama Sabhas have their branch office at Mumbai.  There is large number of Mogaveeras residing in Mumbai from the Bagwadi Hobali and there is no Mumbai Branch for their Kudiges separately at Mumbai.

Branch Office of DKMMS

There is a Branch Office of DKMMS at Mumbai and several branch offices of Grama Sabhas are members of this institution. A list of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas having their office at Mumbai and have become member of branch office of DKMMS, Mumbai is given above under the head “Branch Offices of Traditional Organization"

Mogaveera Religious organizations

Mogaveera Temples

Important Mogaveera temples are dealt with under the Chapter “Mogaveera Religious Practices”. A mention is made here to give an overall picture.


The Mogaveera Moolasthans are dealt with under “Mogaveera Religious Practices”. A mention is made here to give an overall picture.

Bhajana Mandiras

Mogaveeras are God fearing community. Praying at Bhajana Mandiras by singing Bhajans was adopted long back and in many Mogaveera villages up to Bennekuduru we can find Bhajana Mandiras . Mogaveeras worship Mahalakshmi in many forms. Mogaveeras are also worshipping Nagadeva and Daivas who are associated with Lord Ganapathi and Lord Shiva . However, in almost in all Mogaveera Bhajana Mandiras , incarnations (Avataras) of Vishnu, such as, Rama, Krishna, Narayana etc. are worshipped. This might be because of the influence of Shree Madhwacharya who established Shree Krishna Temple at Udupi. Mogaveera Bhajana Mandiras are owned and managed mainly by Grama Sabhas . But, there may also be a few built by group of Mogaveeras. Generally the Bhajan takes place on Saturday night and in many a cases, the attendance in such gatherings are made compulsory by the respective Grama Sabhas . The priests in these Bhajana Mandiras are from mostly Mogaveeras. Now, women are allowed also to participate in singing Bhajans at Bhajana Mandiras . For further information on Mogaveera Bhajana Mandiras , please refer to Chapter “Mogaveera Religious Practices” and the location of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas owned or associated Temples, Moolasthans , Bhajana Mandiras and Daivasthanas which are listed in  “Appendix III” of Chapter “Appendices”.

Mogaveera Grama Sabha Daivasthanas

Many Grama Sabhas have their Grama Daivasthans (Saanas). The Thambila, Darshan Seva, Kola Seva etc. are organized by Grama Sabhas with participation by all Mogaveeras. Mostly Babbarya, Jarandaya Daivas etc. are worshipped. Bhajana Mandiras , Temples and Daivasthans mainly from Barkur Samyukta Patna of Barkur Hobali and Bagwadi Hobali require to be added. Effort is being made to complete this list with the help of people from these places. For further information on Mogaveera Daivasthanas , please refer to the location of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas owned or associated Temples, Moolasthans, Bhajana Mandiras and Daivasthanas which are listed in “Appendix III” of Chapter “Appendices”

Mogaveera Educational & Other Institutions

A few Mogaveera Grama Sabhas individually or several of them are managing schools. Many Fisheries schools (now integrated with other government schools) are supported by Grama Sabhas by constructing school building, repairing them, aiding their maintenance, granting financial help to appoint additional teachers, granting facilities and scholarship to students. Emotionally, Mogaveeras consider these Fisheries Schools as their own. In view of this, these educational institutions are considered under “Mogaveera Educational Organizations”.

Mogaveera Educational Institutions

As all Fisheries schools have been now known as Government schools. A few pictures of schools, High Schools, Colleges are reproduced. They are not necessarily owned by Mogaveera community but Mogaveera community had contributed and benefited by these educational institutions. In “Appendix IV” of the Chapter “Appendices” the details of Mogaveera Educationla Institutions are given.


In the beginning of 20th century, Mogaveera Grama Sabhas assisted by their Mumbai braches have taken keen interest in educating their children and also the children of their neighborhood communities in the coastal villages of Karnataka. Other Mogaveera organizations, such as, Mogaveera Mahila Samajas and Mogaveera Youth wings have also helped in this venture. This initiative was also visible in Mumbai where Mogaveera charitable institutions have started educational institutions for the benefit all communities. These initiatives at Mumbai are discussed later in this Chapter later.

Construction of Schools

The Mogaveera traditional organizations and Mogaveera Charitable institutions have purchased land and built school buildings and conducted school incurring all expenses. In some cases, they have purchased land and constructed school buildings and later handed over to the government for running the school. In some cases, either they purchased land or constructed school and later handed over to the Government for running the school.

Help to School teachers

The Mogaveera organizations have helped their school teachers by providing residential accommodation and appointing additional teachers and bearing their salary expenses wherever necessary so that student’s education should not suffer.

Assistance to School Children

All the Mogaveera organizations/institutions have provided educational aids to the students in the form of school books, school bag, free school uniform, free scholarships, interest-free loans to students to persue higher studies etc. These organisaations have also provided the students with sports gears and health related assistance. Some Grama Sabhas have enforced compulary attendance of their  children in school in early part of 20th Century which is record by itself compared the recent  Right to Education Act of Government of India.

Important Mogaveera Educational Institutions

About eight important Mogaveera edeucational centres are selected for the brief introdeuction. They are, (1) Ullal Mogaveera Grama Sabha Educational institutions, (2) Jnanodaya Educational Instittuions, Hoige Bazar,  (3) Hejmadi-Kodi Fisheries Schools, (4) Sagar Vidya Mandira, Kadipatna-Nadipatna (Padubidri) Grama Sabhas, (5) Yermal Thenka Mogaveera Grama Sabha Educational Institutions, (6) Yermal Bada Mogaveera Grama Sabha Educational Institutions, (7) Moolur Grama Sabha Educational Institutions and (8) Polipu Mogaveera Grama Sabha Educational Institutions. As all the information and pictures of the school premises are not readily available now, only available information are given here. Other information will be included later.  Further, the educational institutions conducted by Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Hithsadana Vedike, Uchila and Mogaveera Vyavasthapaka Mandali, Mumbai have also been discussed in later part of this Chapter.

However, few pictures of important Mogaveera Educational Institutions are give below:

Bharat High School Ullal

Hejmadi Kodi Govt High School

Sagara Vidya Mandira (Padubidri)

Other Educational/Social Institutions

Mogaveera Grama Sabhas and Mogaveeras in their individual capacity have started educational and other institutions for the benefit of students, such as, Vyayama Shalas (popularly known as Godha ), Ex-students associations, Vidya Pracharaka Sanghas , Youth Organizations, Sports Organizations  and  Marana Funds (Death Benefit Funds). As for as possible, details of such institutions are collected. Educational, other Educational institutions and social institutions mainly from Barkur Samyukta Patna of Barkur Hobali and Bagwadi Hobali to be added. Effort is being made to complete this list with the help of people from these places.  The location of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas managed or Educational and Social Institutions are listed in Appendix IV of Chapter “Appendices”.

Taluka / District level Youth Organizations


At the village level as well as group level several youth organizations were formed and they are engaged in social work. Taluka/District level Mogaveera Youth Organizations were also formed. However, it cannot be said that they are apex bodies representing all the village level youth organizations. Information in respect of all the three Taluka/District level Youth organizations is given hereafter.

Udupi District Mogaveera Yuva Sanghatane

This organization is a registered institution. The administration is with an elected Managing committee of around 30 members. There are around 31 branch offices through which the activities are conducted. This institution is in forefront in organizing Mogaveera conferences, cultural activities and training youth for social service. The work relating to finding suitable match for youth of marriageable age and also arranging mass marriage in a simple inexpensive way needs to be appreciated. This institution and Shri G. Shankar Family Trust (Regd.), Ambalpadi (Udupi) came together and coordinated their charity works for the benefit of Mogaveera community.

Bagwadi Hobali Mogaveera Yuva Shakti

This institution, having their head-quarters in Kundapur was sponsored by MMSSBH to train and bring into main stream the youth for the social service activities. For the sake of convenience, the four ’Ghatakas’ (divisions) have been created, which are:

Bayndur and
Haaladi (Shankarnarayana)

This organization is actively participating in all activities of their parent organization and works mainly for the development of youth.

Dakshina Kannada Yuva Vedike

This is an organization of Mogaveera youths of Dakshina Kannada District started in the year 2009. It has its office as Kulai Anusha Building, Mangalore. This institution is still in formative stage.

Important Charitable Institutions


Mogaveera community has started many charitable institutions. Few have been started by the Grama Sabhas, Samyukta Patnas, DKMMS and MMSSBH. Similarly, educated Mogaveeras came together and started charitable institutions at native place and outside, such as, Mumbai, Bangalore and even abroad. In the course of this compilation, many of such charitable institutions have been dealt with and are not repeated here. Few important institutions are discussed here.

Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Hithsadana Vedike, Uchila

This institution was started in 1978 and was formally registered in the year 1980. This institution was registered with Income-tax Department and also obtained exemption certificate u/s.80G of the I.T.Act, 1961. The aims and objectives of the institution are that to serve the society in general and Mogaveera community in particular.

Important areas of Service

This institution has rendered yeomen service during natural calamities, such as, sea erosion, tragedies like fire (at Maple) etc. Its other activities include organizing district level sport meets, awarding merit certificates and scholarships, training job aspirants to face various recruitment examinations etc. This institution has also been in forefront of various agitations to secure the legitimate benefits to the Mogaveera community, such as, waiver of loan during fish-famine and organizing meetings with Chief Minister (Shri Ramakrishna Hegde) for securing subsidy for diesel for fishermen.

Service in the field of Education

In the year 1987 an English medium school was started at Uchila in a rented premise at the initiative of late Shri N. M. Kotian and Shri H.P. Puthran. Thereafter a proper school building was built in stages adjacent to N.H.17 (N.H.66), (near Mahalakshmi Temple, Uchila) with all the facilities, such as, an Auditorium, Library, Science Laboratory and Computer Centre. Presently, a Pre-Primary school, Primary School, Higher Primary School and a High School are operating with student strength of around 600 students. The donation for purchase of land came from late Shri Ragunath Kotian, and major donation from late Smt. Sushila S. Puthran. The High School has been named as “Kethu Marakala Mane Mulky Sankappa B.Puthran Mahalakshmi English Medium High School” after the donor’s husband. In the academic year 2009-10, school has achieved 100% result in SSC which is a record for any rural English medium school at Karnataka State.

Shri G. Shankar Family Trust, Udupi

Shri G. Shankar Family Trust was incorporated on 22nd June, 2002 by Shri G. Shankar. Dr. G. Shankar, a social worker and businessman to initiate and implement pro-people schemes and programmes for the upliftment of economically and socially backward people of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts and to uplift fisher folks communities by initiating latest techniques in fishing, providing financial assistance and necessary equipments. This trust is doing excellent work in the fields of education, health care, religion, social & culture etc. All charitable work done by this trust cannot be listed here. A brochure brought out by the trust may be referred.

In the field of Education

The trust has started a special school known as “Vagjothi Deaf, Dumb & Mentally Retarded Children’s School” at Moodubaghe, Kundapur, a high school known as “Late Soma Bangera Memorial Government High School” at Kodi Kanyana (Udupi Taluka) which has now become a Junior College, facilitated the construction of first grade collage at Manur, Kota (Udupi Taluka) with the help of local MLA, constructed and manages professional college, known as “Vidyanikethan Teachers’ Training Institute” which awards D.Ed. diploma. This trust donated substantial amounts to various educational institutions out of which few are noted here. (a) St. Mary’s English Medium High School, Mother of Sorrows Church, Udupi, (b) Government Pre-University College for girls, Udupi etc. The trust is also donating teaching aids, such as, computers, special grants for purchase of teaching aids etc. This trust has also been awarding scholarships, distributing books to needy students of schools and colleges amounting to more than Rs. 1 crore per year.

In the field of Health Care

The trust has financed construction of a 20 bed modern maternity ward at Government Hospital, Kundapur, facilitated the construction of a building to house the relatives of the patients who are admitted in KMC hospital, Manipal, donated several dialysis machines for the treatment of kidney ailments to several hospitals which have helped thousands of patients, donated ambulances to hospitals and health care of some villages, donated liberally to various health care institutions, such as, Red Cross (Udupi), IMA (Udupi) and helped poor patients in getting treatment in several hospitals free or in concessional rate. As already mentioned earlier, this list is not exhaustive.

In the field of Religion

The trust has contributed liberally towards the construction of Prasanna Ganapathi Temple, Bijapur, in the renovations of Shree Kulamahastri Amma Temple, Bennekuduru, Shree Mahisasura Mardhini Temple, Bagwadi (Kundapur). Several donations to various religious institutions have also been given which cannot be listed here.

In the field of Social & Culture

The trust has donated at the time of natural calamities, such as, earthquake at Gujarat and Tsunami Relief Fund of Prime Minister. The trust has helped many aged Yakshgana artists by granting financial help periodically and paid honouriams to Mogaveera Gurikara . A special mention is necessary of the free mass marriages arranged by the trust for hundreds of couples.


The grateful society has honored the author of the trust by conferring several awards, such as, “ Mogaveera Kularatna Award” (2006 – D.K. & Udupi Mogaveera Associations), “ Sri Krishnanugraha Award” (2007 – Krishnapura Mutt, Udupi), “Karnataka Rajyotsava Award (2007 – Government of Karnataka), Doctorate (2008 – Mangalore University), “ Mogaveera Kulabhushana Award” (2008 – Mumbai Mogaveera Association) and Kannada Vishwa Vidyalaya, Hampi , awarded “ Naadoja” .

Address of the Trust : G. Shankar Family Trust (R), Shamili, N.H.17, Ambalpady, Udupi 576101.

Tel - 0820-2533094.

Other Mogaveera Institutions in Karnataka State


Mogaveeras have built many organizations/institutions and they along with other communities have established several organizations/institutions.  These institutions are not discussed as they have been dealt with under the head “Occupations Mogaveeras”. Few are cited here for reference. They are 68 Fishermen /Fisherwomen Primary Co-operative Ltd., D.K. & Udupi District Co-operative Fish Marketing Federation, Karnataka Fisheries Development Corporation, Akila Karnataka Fishermen’s Parishattu (Conference), Coastal Fishermen Action Committee etc. Other important organizations/institutions are dealt with hereafter.

Mahalakshmi Co-operative Bank Ltd, Udupi

Fishermen needed financial assistance for purchase of boats, nets and working capital to pursue their profession. The finance was also required for meeting the unforeseen and urgent expenses. The Scheduled Banks were not helpful and money lenders were charging prohibitive interest and impose difficult recovery schedules. Increasing need for investment in mechanized boats and modern fishing equipments added additional burden.

Bank started in 1978

With the help of a few social workers in coastal Karnataka, Mogaveera Yuvaka Sangha took the initiative to gather the initial capital of Rs. 3 lakh and 1000 members. It also helped in getting required sanction from the Karnataka Government and Reserve Bank of India. Mogaveera Yuvaka Sangha also spent around Rs.12,000/- towards the initial expenditure. The Mahalaxmi Co-operative Bank Ltd. was started in 1978 having its first headquarters at Malpe. The headquarters were shifted to Udupi later.

Branch Offices

Apart from headquarters at Udupi, the bank had initial three branches at Mangalore, Malpe and Gangolli. Now, this co-operative bank has eight branches i.e. added five more branches. The additional branches were started at Suratkal, Hejmadi, Uchila (Padu), Kundapur.

Service to Fishermen

With eight branches and large number of members and depositors, the bank had made considerable progress by advancing loans to fishermen and women.

Mogaveera Sangha, Bangalore

Mogaveeras started migrating to Mumbai in the beginning of seventeenth century. But, Mogaveeras migration to Bangalore did not take place up to the beginning of eighteenth century. This is because of the fact that the present coastal Karnataka districts were with Madras Presidency. After the Karnataka State was formed, the Bangalore became the capital and Mogaveeras also started migrating to the city. In the beginning very few people settled down and were not known each other. A few resourceful Mogaveeras at Bangalore started Mogaveera Sabha at Bangalore on 9th September 1973. The first President was Shri H. Lakshman Salian. Present membership has arisen to around 1000. This number of membership appears to be very small compared to the whole Mogaveeras community living at Bangalore. Even the approximate number of families and people residing at Bangalore is not known.

Bangalore Mogaveera Sangha has created a platform for bringing all Mogaveeras together at Bangalore. It had also associated with the movement of Gangamath/Mogaveera Brotherhood communities to be included in Scheduled Caste. It had taken on lease a piece of land for the purpose of building its own office premises and to build a community hall for the benefit of general public. This project is under implementation. This organization supports the Mogaveera students by awarding merit certificates and granting scholarships. It also holds social functions, such as, get together for the members.

Address : No.15, 17 “F” Cross, Indira Nagar, 2nd Phase, Bangalore 560038.

Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd.), Chikkamagalooru District

Chikkamagaloor district consists of seven Talukas. They are (i) Chikkamagaloor (ii) Kadur (iii) Koppa (iv) Mudigere (iv) Narasimharajpur (v) Shringeri and (vii) Tarikeri. This organization represents all the Mogaveeras residing in Chikkamagaloor District.

The organization was started in the year 2004 and the prominent founder members are (i) Shri D.L.Shankartnath (ii) Shri K.H.Narasinha and (iii) Shri K. Ramanna. They have been guided by Dr. G. Shankar who has been instrumental in starting the organization and its activities.

Aims and objectives

The main aim is to have a common platform for all Mogaveeras living in Chikkamagaloor district. It `appears that they succeeded in organizing all the Mogaveeras of Chikkamagaloor District.

Information given by

Shri D. L. Shankarnath, President. Address: Shree Lakshmi Complex, Dr. Abedkar Road, K.M.Road Circle, Chikkamagaloor-577101

Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd.), Shringeri Kshetra

Mogaveeras living in three Talukas of (i) Shringeri (ii) Koppa and (iii) Narasinharajpur of Chikkamagaloor have formed this organization and registered in the year 2009. This organization is also part of the district level organization of Chikkamagaloor. The founder President is Shir K.S. Raju, Kodoor village.

Aims & Objectives and Activities

This organization is part of the district level organization of Chikkamagaloor and it functions on identical basis. The additional information available is that Mogaveeras settled in these three Talukas appears to have taken up agricultural activities in big way apart from other professions.

Information given by

Shri K. S. Raju, Contractor.

Address : Kodoor Village, Haalandoor Post, Shringeri Taluka.

Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd.), Shivamoga District

Shivamoga district consists of seven Talukas. They are (i) Shivamoga (ii) Bhadravathi (iii) Teerthalli (iv) Hosanagara (v) Sagar (vi) Sorab and (vii) Shikaripur. This organization represents all the Mogaveeras residing in Shivamogga District and also functions as an apex body for the Mogaveera Mahajana Sanghas of Talukas of Shivamogga Disitrct.

The organization was started on 13th May, 2009 and the prominent founder members are (i) Shri B.M.Mahabala Rao (ii) Shri Shri Nagaraj (iii) Shri Sudhakar Mogaveera, (iv) Shri Paanduranga G. and (v) Shri Ramachandra. They have been guided by Dr. G. Shankar who has been instrumental in starting the organization and its activities.

Aims and objectives

The main aim is to have a common platform for all Mogaveeras living in Shivamogga district. It appears that they succeeded in organizing all the Mogaveeras of Shivamogga District and co-coordinating with the Mogaveera organizations at Taluka level.

Information given by

Shri B. M. Mahabala Rao, President.

Address: “Nadashree”, 5th Cross, Sheshadripura, Shankar Mutt Road, Shivamogga, 577201.

Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd.), Shivamogga Taluka

Mogaveeras living in two Talukas of (i) Shivamogga and (ii) Bhadravathi of Shivamoga District have formed this organization and registered in the year 2004. This organization is also part of the district level organization of Shivamogga District. The prominent founders are Shri B.M.Mahabala Rao, Shri Appu Kotian, Shri Rama Kundar & Shri G.Panduranga.

Aims & Objectives and Activities

This organization is part of the district level organization of Shivamoga and it functions on identical basis. The additional information available is that Mogaveeras settled in these three Talukas appears to have taken up agricultural activities in big way apart from other professions.

Information given by

Shri Shri B. M. Mahabala Rao, President.

Address: “Nadashree”, 5th Cross, Sheshadripura, Shankar Mutt Road, Shivamogga, 577201.

Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd), Sagara Taluka

Mogaveeras of Sagara Taluka (Shivamogga District) have started this organization in the year 2008. This organization is affiliated to Shivamogga District Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha . The aims and objectives of the organization is the same as its parent organization. From the information available, it can be said that the 32 organizers of this institution have collected basic information of majority of Mogaveeras residing in Sagar taluka which is commendable. The organizers proudly state that by forming Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha , Mogaveeras residing at Sagar taluka have their own identity as Mogaveeras and a platform for group activities. They have also been able to purchase an office premises for their organization. Their aim is to build their own Sabha Bhawan .

This organization has taken steps to aid and assist the student community and self help programs for its members. One of the significant achievements is that they have succeeded in getting an ambulance for the benefit of public. The organizers acknowledge with gratitude the generous help of Dr. G. Shankar (Refer above for more details) who not only donated the ambulance but also financially helped them to carry out their social services. Sagar Taluka Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha had hosted the mammoth conference of Mogaveeras of Shivamogga District in which around fifteen thousand people said to have been participated. They have also invited political leaders and important Mogaveera personalities and appraised the needs of Mogaveera community.

The current Officed Bearers of the organization are (i) President – Shri Ananda Marakala, (ii) Secretary – Shri Nagaraja R Bilagunji and (iii) Treasurer – Shri Vasudeva.

The information is given by

Secretarty, Shri N.R.Bilagunji.

Address: Secretary, Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha, Sagara Taluka, 4th Cross, Gandhi Nagar, Sagar, Shivamogga District, Karnataka 577401.
Information Needed

The formal enquiries show that Mogaveera Sanghas are also functioning at Belgaum, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Haaveri, Hassan, Mysore, Karkala and in other places It is also learnt that a few commercial and social institutions at the above places are also functioning which have been organized by Mogaveeras. Effort is being made to collect and verify the same for the purpose of including the in the book. Information on these organizations/institutions is welcome.

Mogaveera Institutions in the State of Maharashtra

Mogaveeras at Mumbai in 1530

In an article written by Shri Shankar Hosbettu in “Mogaveera” monthly (June 1994) he had referred to an article written by Mrs. Volga Vallardores in Evening News of Times of India Group (7th December,1979) about a reference she had made to ‘Canaries navigators” who assisted Portuguese navy in their sea battle to capture Due and Daman in 1530s. Both articles referred to above gives graphic details of Portuguese naval formation and presence of fishermen navigators. The issue emphasized here is that Mogaveeras were the ace navigators even in 1530. In and around 1530s, Mogaveeras were the only navigators who manned the local sea transport vessels and were capable navigators who could have assisted Portuguese navy.  Therefore, it can be safely concluded that reference to ‘Canaries’ navigators is to Mogaveeras.

Navigators/Naval Commanders in 1555

This conclusion can be justified by reference to the information available in “Mogaveera Freedom Fighters” under Chapter “Prominent Mogaveeras”. Here, The versatile Mogaveera Naval Commanders, such as Shri Chennappa Gurikra and Shri Kunja Marakala , have organized Mogaveeras from Barkur to Ullal to assist Rani Abbakka in 1555, 1561 and 1581 battles with Portuguese and won these battles. With this contemporary evidence of the ability of Mogaveera navigators, their presence at Mumbai can be justified. In view of the above, Mogaveera navigators were experienced enough to travel all around and were present at Mumbai islands around 1530 is proved beyond doubt. Further, during 1550 Portuguese were in possession of “BomBaia” and Mumbai was in the possession of British Crown Prince from 1661. The reclamation was started in the 1784 and continued till 1900. For more details please refer to “Ancient History of Mumbai” under Chapter the “Habitats”. During this turbulent and transitional period, there is no record of Mogaveeras activities at Mumbai as they have been performing supportive role which may not have been recorded or old records may not be available. However, during 1550 to 1800, Mogaveeras were visiting Mumbai and were also residing are substantiated by oral evidence from the elders. But this needs to be substantiated by further research.

A circular letter from Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha

A circular letter issued on 9th December, 1940 by Mogaveera Mahajana Sabha, Mumbai (a branch of Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Regd.), records that Mogaveeras were residing at Mumbai in an organized manner at Mumbai from 1808. Relevant portion of the above circular (three paragraphs and names of the office bears) is reproduced below:

Shreemadhbharatha Mandali

The institution known as Shreemadbharatha Mandali founded in 1878 by late Shri Rama Panji of Kannangar is the oldest religious institution at Mumbai started more than 133 years back. This institution has built a temple known as ‘Shree Lakshminarayana Mandir’ at Andheri (West), Mumbai. This institution is known for keeping the tradition of Grantha Parayana and explaining the meanings of sacred religious texts in Tulu and Kannada to the devotees. Detailed write up is given under the Chapter “Mogaveera Religious Practices”.

Mogaveera Hobali Sabha at Mumbai

We may recall that Mogaveeras had Mangalore, Barkur and Bagwadi Hobalies . These Hobalies were functioning without any places of their own and it is difficult to establish their identities It is believed, that once in a year, all the Hobali representatives gathered in Bennekuduru Temple during the annual pooja at Shree Kulamahastri Amma Temple . Mogaveera Kulagurus were the cementing factor held all the Hobalies together. In 1923 the year Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha (Mangalore & Barkur Hobalies) was formally came into being and registered in 1926. Similarly, Mogaveera Mahajana Seva Sangha (Bagwadi Hobali) was formed in 1927.

Search for Mogaveera Hobali Sabha

The Shreemadbharatha Mandali, Mumbai had claims to have conducted its poojas at Ghoga Street (Bombay Stationer Mart) rented by Hobali Sabha during 1906 to 1922. This fact is recorded by many writers. This only show that in Mumbai, Mogaveera Hobali Sabha was in existence at least from 1906. However, oral statements by some elderly people give an impression that Mogaveera Hobali Sabha was in existence much before 1906 which could not be proved to be correct for a long time till old records were traced at Shree Mahalakshmi Temple, Uchila (Udupi Taluka, State of Karnataka).

Hadinaru (16) Patna Mogaveera Sabha at Mumbai

According to published report dated 24th April, 1930 in Kannada News Paper ‘Navayuga’ the ‘Barkuru Hobali ’ at Mumbai was established in the year 1884 by the sixteen Bombay branches of Mogaveera Grama Sabhas from Palimaru to Polipu. Fortunately, a copy of this news report is still available which proves the involvement of sixteen Grama Sabhas . It is necessary to state that Palimar village Grama Sabha was counted as twice, (i) ‘Moodu’  (East) Palimar and (ii) ‘Padu’  (West) Palimar .

Navayuga Report

A report published in ‘Navauga a Kannada News Paper at Mumbai on 24th April, 1930 states that ‘Barkuru Hobali, Mumbai’ started in the year 1884 by Mogaveera community. The contents of the news report are dealt with appropriate places and only a small portion is reproduced below to give a feel of the news printed.

Ledger Accounts

This institution has meticulously maintained its accounts in a ledger form ( Guajarati Chopda form). The account in fact starts from 1888 and these entries are not legible. The  ledger account from 5th May, 1889 and the last written page of 11th June, 1899 are  reproduced below:

It is interesting note that the summary of the transactions at the last page of the ledger on 12th May, 1895 show that 54 entries recording the balances (total amount at Rs.1542) recoverable on that date. Names of the borrowers and their village names were recorded. 

Petition against levy of tax on salt

In the year 1894, according to a bunch of papers available, around 1141 Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai participated in a petition to Finance Ministry of Presidency of Madras.  We may recall here that undivided Dakshina Kannada District was at that time administered by Madras Presidency. The copy of the petition is not available.  The significance of this can be appreciated with little explanation.  A hand written list of 1141 Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai in the year 1894 attached to a petition made to Government of Madras on 30th April, 1894 (No.1738 Finance & Commerce Department – Separate Revenue Salt) in respect of levy of tax on Mannuppu (a variant of salt). In this list 1141 names of Mumbai Mogaveeras and their respective Mogaveera villages are recorded.  Front page copy of the available paper is reproduced below:

The presence of Mogaveeras at Mumbai dates back to 1530 as per the information gathered by Shri Shankar Hosbettu and recorded in “Mogaveera” (June 1994). The Mogaveera Mahajanaa Sangha’s circular letter 9th December, 1940 says that Mogaveeras in large numbers were preset in Mumbai from 1808. The papers about Mannuppu representation in 30th April, 1894 record the 1141 names/their villages of Mogaveeras. Thus, before Shreemadbharatha Mandali established in 1879, Mogaveeras were present at Mumbai much before in large numbers but records are to be traced. With these introductory remarks, the main institutions at Maharashtra State are dealt with.

Formation of Mannuppu (soil mixed salt cake)

At the time of high tide, sea water rushes into river and spreads into low lying areas and recedes back into the sea during low tide. During summer, due to intense head of the sun, the water collected in low lying areas dries up which is known as Mannuppu . This soil mixed salt cake used to be collected and used as a substitute for salt. This salt cake used for salting the fish for preservation also. Therefore, it was one of the naturally provided salts free of cost. Then British Government wanted to levy tax on salt and salt cake also.  This appears to have prompted local fishermen, including Mogaveeras to protest against such a levy.

Mumbai Mogaveeras’ Response

Mogaveeras residing in Mumbai came to know of these developments. They appear to have deliberated and prepared a petition protesting against such a levy of tax on salt. For this purpose, they had collected 1141 names of the Mogaveeras who have come from Ullal (near Mangalore) to Kundapur. Around 30 sheets of paper written on both sides are available. Here, first name is written in pencil under the names of their respective villages. Best of my information, no tax on salt was levied. From the document available, one can draw the following conclusions:

Mogaveeras residing in Mumbai in the year 1894 were responsive to the problems faced by their people at native place.
Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai in the year 1894 were well organized and were able to  contact 1141 people.
Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai unknowingly sowed the seeds in the year 1894 itself of Salt Sathyagraha which was to take place in 1930.

Names of original sixteen Grama Sabhas

Moodu Palimar
Nadipatna (Padubidri)
Padu Palimar
Sanna Gundi
Kaadipatna (Padubidri)
Thenka Yermal
Kapu and
Bada Yermal

In this report it is also stated that in the year 1896, Kaipunjal (Gudde) Grama Sabha had joined the group of sixteen Grama Sabhas to make the membership to seventeen. It appears, later two Palimar Grama Sabhas merged into single unit as Palimar Grama Sabha . Therefore, this organization is later known as ‘Hadinarupatna Mogaveera Sabha’.

Unique Organisation

The report also states that there were nine Grama Sabhas of Hejamadi Ombattu Uru (nine villages) and six Grama Sabhas of Kapu Nalkupatna were the original members. Therefore, it appears that the Samyukta Patna of Hejmadi Eluru (seven villages) and Samyukta Patna of Padubidiri (with two villages) was a single Samyukta Patna in the beginning. It is strange that only one Grama Sabha , Kaipunjal which was part of Udyavara Hadinalkupatna (Fourteen villages) has joined this organization and others have not. Probably, branches of other Grama Sabhas may not have existed in 1884/1896. The name of ‘Barkuru Hobali Sabha’ at Bombay in 1884 may have been adopted with the hope other Grama Sabha branches would be formed and join later which did not take place.

Administrative set up

Up to the year 1930, this organization was managed by two Mukteshwaras and a Shanubhag (Accountant). In those days, instead of "Shri" as the prefix to names of people was "Raa" indicating "Rajashri". For the sake of convenience, "Shri" is used. In the year 1929, Shri Polipu Venkkappa Bangera and Shri Gundi Ugganavaru were the Mukteshwaras . These people expressed their desire to be relieved of their responsibilities. This led to formation of managing committee consisting of not more than 22 members. The sixteen members were deputed by each Grama Sabhas and five were to be nominated. Under the new dispensation, a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary and a Shanubhag were to be appointed as the office-bearers.

The first office-bears were (i) Shri Palimaru Guddanavaru, President (ii) Shri Mooluru Shanbhunavaru, Vice-President (iii) Shri Yermalu Koragappanavaru, Secretary and (iv) Shri Kannagaru Kanthunavaru, Shanubhag. The names of seventeen members were also listed. In the year 1934, a written Rules and Regulations were adopted. It appears, thereafter, regularly annual reports were published. The account books from 1889 onwards and copies of minutes of the meetings are also available.

Income and activities

The members of Grama Sabha Branch at Bombay are expected to pay yearly membership fees which used to be collected by respective Grama Sabhas and deposited with this organization. This organization appears to have started a Marana Fund (Death Benefit Fund) which is evident from signed elaborate Rules and Regulations in a book. But, functional details are not available.

This organization functioned in the same way of any Samyukta Patna functioned at native place. Therefore, it had powers to decide internal disputes between its members and fine them (including banning from attending community functions). It had advanced its capital to its members on obtaining securities of title deeds of land, gold and personal securities. It also reported to have helped its members who deserved help. A list of 1141 people residing at Bombay in 1894 with names of the villages they belong from Ullal to Kundapur shows that a large number of our people were residing in Bombay even at that time. This list was prepared to protest against applying for Madras Government for salt ( Mannuppu ) permit.

Transition & Litigation

Unfortunately, it appears that there was a dispute among the members and legal notices through solicitors were exchanged in the year 1931 after the new committee took over. The rival group claimed that this organization represented all the 117 Grama Sabhas of Mangalore Hobali and Barkuru Hobali. The results of these legal notices are not known. From the papers available, it appears that Hadinaru Patna Mogaveera Sabha consisting of sixteen Grama Sabha branches at Mumbai continued. It is sad that an organization which settled disputes among the members were subjected to such legal proceedings probably gave hint of the events in store for Mogaveera community in the future.

Census in 1936

This institution was credited with having its office at Fort area of Mumbai was active in social work and it had conducted census of Mogaveeras of sixteen villages (from Palimaru to Kaipunjal) residing at Mumbai. The detailed census was undertaken in July 1936. The details of the census are available in an article written by me in ‘Mogaveera’ (January 2001 page 25). A specimen of circular dated 2nd July, 1936 is given below.

The one page information gathered during the census of Uchila village residing at Mumbai is given below.

The final analyses of the data in respect of all the 16 villages are not available.

Activities at Native Place

This institution had purchased land at Uchila adjacent to N.H.17 (66) in the year 1943 and constructed a building in the year 1947 with ground plus one floor; in this building at least two schools have conducted their classes. One is Saraswathi Mandira Higher Primary School, Uchila and the second is Dakshina Kannda Mogaveera Hithasadhana Vedike's (DKMHV) Mahalakshmi English Medium High School, Uchila. A portion of the land was sold later to DKMH Vedike and DKMH Vedike had built an English Medium High School. The major portion of the land was sold to Mahalakshmi Housing Colony, Uchila where residential housing colony of Mogaveeras known as Mahalakshmi Housing Colony, Uchila has come up. At native place and in Mumbai, this institution is not active at present. This building is likely to be demolished for widening N.H. 17 (66).

D.K.M. H Vedike’s English Medium High School

Mogaveera Vyavasthapaka Mandali

So far as Mogaveera charitable institutions are concerned, Mogaveera Vyavasthapaka Mandali (Mandali) can be considered as first one in Mumbai. It was established on 9th August, 1902 by the social workers. The constitution was adopted in 1902. In the beginning, the name was Mangalore Mogera Vyavasthapaka Mandali . The first Annual report was prepared as on 31-12-1902. Mogaveera Clerks Union was merged into Mandali on 28th August, 1921 infusing fresh blood. The name of the institution was changed into Mogaveera Vyavasthapaka Mandali in the year 1921. The Mandali adopted a new constitution and was registered in the year 1929. Mogaveera Dharmodharaka Mandali which was established by Mogaveeras in 1927, merged with M.V.Mandali in the year 1941. Mandali appointed a representative in South Kenera in the year 1948 to coordinate its welfare activities at the native place. Mandali has created a Ladies Wing and Youth Wing to encourage both ladies and youths to participate in its activities. A full fledged branch office was started at Suratkal. The branch offices were opened in Dombivali and eastern suburb of Mumbai later.

Census of Mogaveeras at Mumbai

An informal census was conducted in the year 1922 and the estimated Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai was 650 and 50% were literate. Similar exercises were conducted and census data were reported in 1923, 1924 and 1929. The last report of 1929 reported the total number of Mogaveeras residing at Mumbai at 1075. It consists of 864 men, 100 women, 77 boys and 34 girls. The figures reported show that men were predominantly more compared to women and children.

Early Educational activities

A school known as ‘Mogaveera Poor Boys’ Night High School’ which was later revised as ‘Mogaveera Night High School’ was started in 1908 and was in operation till 1917. In the year 1921, the night high school was reopened again and english medium section was also opened later. In the year 1938, the total number of students reached a large number of 451. Students were encouraged to join Scouts and rendering service. A school for girls was opened in the year 1930 and was later handed over to Bombay Municipal Corporation in the year 1933. A day school for boys was started in the year 1940 and was also handed over to Bombay Municipal Corporation. Mogaveera Guards, a service wing was also created which render service in many occasions. Mandali started awarding scholarship in the year 1904. It facilitated in the year 1919 Shri Koragappa Salian of Bockapatna on his passing four year Sanitary Engineering course from Victoria Technical Institute, Mumbai. This tradition was continued and thousands of students benefited. A Free Reading Room & Library was opened for the benefit of students and public.

Distinguished Visitors In the year 1931

Mogaveera Kulaguru Shri Madhava Mangala Poojarya and Shri Karnad Sadashiva Rao, in the year 1933, Smt.Sarojini Naidu and in the year 1937 Shri Jawarlal Nehru, Shri Krishna Menon, Shri T.A.Pai visited the school. Several other dignitaries from Karnataka, S/Shri B.M.Srikantayya, D.R.Bendre, Govinda Pai, R.R.Diwakar etc. have also visited the Mandali and school and wrote appreciating notes in the visitor’s book.

Mogaveera Monthly

Kannada ‘Mogaveera’ quarterly was started in the year 1939 and has the proud privilege of uninterrupted publication till date. ‘Mogaveera’ became monthly magazine in June, 1961. Golden Jubilee was celebrated in 1989 and Diamond Jubilee celebrations were held in the year 1999. It is considered as the oldest Kannada monthly published outside the State of Karnataka. It had won several awards for the excellence and longevity of publication. Later it also allotted some portion for publishing articles written in English. Now it is nearing the land mark of completing 70 years of uninterrupted publication. Mandali has also published and assisted in publication of books. Mandali has also participated in several literary meets.

Address: Mogaveera, 8, Nanabhai Lane, Fort, Mumbai 400001.

Tel - 022-22870882

Mogaveera Co-operative Bank Ltd.

The benefit of hard work of Mogaveeras (fishermen) used to be reaped by middlemen and Mogaveeras remained in perpetual debt trap. The M. V. Mandali realized that improvement in the standard of living of Mogaveeras can be achieved by providing adequate financial resources through a co-operative banking system. Similarly, it was also felt that a co-operative bank would serve the interests of Mogaveera community living in Mumbai. The planning for this started in 1942 by a visit to native place (undivided South Karana district) by the office bears of the Mandali. Eminent Mogaveeras of undivided South Kanara district supported the idea of starting a co-operative bank to serve the interests of Mogaveeras living in urban Mumbai and rural undivided South Kenera district.

Applications for license to start a co-operative bank for the benefit of Mogaveeras in Mumbai and in undivided South Kanara district were made under Co-operative Societies Act to the Registrars of Co-operatives of Government of Bombay and Government of Madras as undivided South Kanara district was under the Government of Madras. The Registrar of Co-operatives Societies, Pune (Government of Bombay) granted license to start a co-operative bank on 04-01-1946 but such grant of a license from the Government of Madras for starting banking operations in undivided South Kanara district did not come through. The Mandali, therefore, decided on 26-01-1946 to start The Mogaveera Co-operative Bank Ltd. only in Bombay and deferred the decision on starting banking operation at South Kanara.

The first Board of Directors of the bank was constituted consisting of Shri H. K. A. Kunderan (Chairman), Dr. N. D. Kanchan, Sarvashri Koragappa Dooma, B. A. Kotian, V. A. Kotian, U. Rama Rao, K. U. Mendon and P. M. Mendon. Shri Shiva Salian was selected as Manager of the bank. Shri Vaikunth L. Mehta, Finance Minister of Government of Bombay inaugurated the bank on 18-03-1946. The Mogaveera Co-operative Bank Ltd.  started functioning in Mandali’s office on 19-03-1946.

The initial shareholders of the bank were only 368 and the paid up capital was Rs. 47,305.  In the year 2012, the number of shareholders exceeded and the paid up capital of the bank is Rs. 15 crores.

It was reported that the total deposits of the bank crossed Rs.500 crores and the total mix of business volume exceeded Rs.800 crores. The bank has eleven branches now spread over the city of Mumbai. The bank is now open to all communities and renders all banking services to the general public.

Shree Mahalakshmi Co-operative Housing Society

Mogaveera community people who have settled down in Mumbai were slow in renting or owning residential premises. There was an acute shortage of residential space to accommodate the growing families. To solve this problem, M. V. Mandali initiated the process of forming a co-operative housing society in the year 1963 by constituting a sub-committee consisting of Shri Shiva Salian (Chairman), Shri R. L. Kotian (Vice-Chairman), Shri G. S. Karkera (Secretary) and eight other members. These gentlemen were the promoters of Shree Mahalakshmi Co-operative Housing Society Ltd. (society) which was registered on   20-06-1963 under the Maharashtra Co-operative Housing Societies Act, 1960. The society purchased land admeasuring 51000 sq. yards situated in Ambivali village, Andheri (West), Mumbai and constructed six residential buildings with 242 flats of different sizes. A community hall and a provision store for the benefit of the members were also built. The community hall was named after Shri Shiva Salian, Founder Chairman of the society. Shree Mahalakshmi Bhajana Mandira is conducting its Bhajana programmes in the community hall.

Shri Boman Behram and Shri T. K. Uppoor, Bombay City Corporators, have helped the society to purchase the land and construction of the buildings. Shri T. A. Pai, has helped in arranging housing loans for the members from Syndicate Bank with society as guarantor.

The society sold a portion of the land to M. V. Mandali which was used for construction of school buildings. A piece of land was gifted to Shreemadhbharath Mandali where Shree Lakshminarayana Mandira (Temple) has been built.

Help to other Institutions

Few instances are given hereafter.

Sarva Hobali Sabha, a branch office of Dakshina Kannada Mogaaveera Mahajan Sangha which was functioning at Mumbai was in difficulty because of internal difference between the Managing Committee members. Several attempt to settle the dispute by the parent body failed and the belongings of the Hobali were kept in the office of Mandali in 1993 and was later transferred to Shree Mahalakshmi Temple, Uchila in the year 1957.
Jawarlal Night High School was to close in the year 1958 and the students studying in S.S.C were accommodated in the Mogaveera Night High School.
Shreemadhbharatha Mandali of Mumbai was to vacate the premises at French Bank and was not having any place to continue their activities. Mandali accommodated them till 1962 when they found a place on rent.
Participated in the activities of Samyukta Karnataka Sangha from 1934 onwards and helped the organization in their activities.
Participated in various Kannada Sahitya Parishatu meetings and Horanadu Kannadiga Sneha Sammelanas.
It can be noted with pride that many of the Office bearers who participated in Samyukta Karnataka Sangha, Kannada Sahithya Parishatu and Horanadu Kannadigara Sneha Sammelana were appointed to held important positions.

Assistance to Students

Loan Scholarship for students’ pursuing professional courses and free scholarships for certain categories students are also granted. Mandali also facilitates Mogaveera students for the achievements in passing various examinations.

Jubilee Celebrations
Mandali celebrated its Silver Jubilee in the year 1927, Golden Jubilee in the year 1954, Platinum Jubilee in the year 1978 and Centenary celebration in the year 2002. On all the occasions, attractive souvenirs were brought out which recorded the achievements of the Mandali. The institutions started and sponsored by Mandali have also celebrated Silver Jubilee and Golden Jubilee. To name a few, we can quote ‘Mogaveera’ Monthly, Mogaveera Co-operative Bank, Mogaveera Night High School etc. An ambitious program known as ‘Mogaveera Vision 2010’ is under implementation.

Education Campus at Andheri

The beginning was made in the year 1970 by opening Kindergarten (K.G) classes in the residential premises; it shifted to school building in the year 1978. The school sent its first batch of students for S.S.C examination in the year 1980. It has a full-fledged computer centre, science laboratory, library and a play ground for the benefit of the students. The student strength had reached 2500 with more than 58 teachers.

Educational Institutions

MVM's Adv. N. Dinker Rao & Mrs. Dhanwanthi D. Rao  ankur (Playgroup).
MVM's Boloor Smt. Manorama G.Suvarnza Pre-Primary School.
MVM's Bengare G.P.Suvarna Primary School.
MVM's Swami Muktananda High School.
MVM's Sasihithlu Bhavani Mendon & Mohan Mendon Junior College of Commerce.
MVM's Degree College of Commerce & Science.
MVM's Jarkala Sudhakar Hegde College of Bachelor of Management Studies.
Dev & Shila Jalan Information Technology Centre I
Baikampady Shiv & Saraswathi Salian Bachelor Information Technology Centre II  

Educational Complex of M V Mandali Andheri (West), Mumbai

Highlights of Present Charitable Activities

Mandali is conducting the above mentioned educational institutions at Mumbai at their educational campus at Andheri and Dombivali. Ambititious programs of building suitable educational facilities are under way. Apart from this, Mandali has also purchased land at Suratkal and is in the process of starting educational/medical facilities. Few important areas of charitable work in implementation are given hereafter.

Grants fee concession, Free Scholarships and Loan Scholarship to deserving students.
Awards Merit Scholarships to students.
Grants Medical help to patients and assists in educating and marriage of the widow’s children.
Conducts sports and athletic events, grants cash assistance to outstanding sport persons and ‘Kadala Parbhas’ at native place.
Helps and assists Mogaveera community people and institutions on several ways.
Mandali is constructing additional building in their Andheri Educational Complex.
Mandali has also a plan to develop facilities at Surtkal for its charitable activities.

Proposed Educational Complex of M V Mandali

For the above activities, Mandali needs large fund and sent in an “Appeal” for contribution.

For more details, please see history of M.V.Mandali ‘Down the Memory Lane’ witten by Shri Shankar Hosabettu and
Website: www.mogaveera.org.

Address: Mogaveera Bhavan, Veera Desai Road, Andheri (West), Mumbai 400058.

Tel - 022-26772714.

Telefax - 022-26772844.

Mogaveera Yuvaka Sangha

Mogaveera Yuvaka Sangha (Yuvaka Sangha) was started on 1st September, 1934 ( Shree Krishnasthami day) by Mogaveera youths to eradicate superstition, illiteracy, child marriage, menace of dowry system etc. and to bring in progressive approach in solving the problems of Mogaveera community in particular and whole society in general. In a way, this institution has done yeomen service, to whole society. Yuvaka Sangha was formally registered under the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950 in the year 1983.

Member’s Oath

One particular aspect needs mention here is that its members are required to take an oath that they will not take dowry, will not participate in child marriage, etc. and actively propagate the Yuvaka Sangha’s aims and objectives.

Associate organizations

 To carry out its aims and objectives, the Yuvaka Sangha started many associate institutions. A well stocked Kannada library was started which was the source for many research scholars at Mumbai. Series of lectures by eminent authors were arranged for the benefit of general public. It encouraged its members to form drama groups who staged several dramas in both Kannada and Tulu languages. To serve the public at large, Mogaveera Yuvaka Sevadal was created in the year 1938. An Annual House Journal was started in the year 1939 for the purpose of encouraging writers. To help youth to find employment, an Employment Bureau was started in the year 1940. An Industrial school for women was started in the year 1949 at Mumbai and two branches were also started at native place. To serve the consumers Yuvaka Sangha started “The Fort Consumer Co-operative Society in the year 1947.

Social Reforms

Yuvaka Sangha was in the forefront of anti-dowry and anti-child marriage movement. Apart from spreading awareness, it went to the extent of contesting child marriage in a court of law and got such child marriage annulled. The Magistrate who passed the judgment appreciated the effort of Yuvaka Sangha in his judgment stating that such an instance was first in Mumbai. Yuvaka Sangha also propagated the need for widow remarriage. Yuvaka Sangha campaigned against consumption of alcohol by individuals and serving alcohol in social functions. In 1937, interim Government formed by Congress at Bombay Presidency included representatives of Yuvaka Sangha as one of the advisors. Similarly, campaign against smoking was carried out. At the positive side, it encouraged good behavior and self-help. Yuvaka Sangha though established at Mumbai ‘Melanta’ took keen interest in the social status of Mogaveera community. A section of Mogaveera community known as were not treated as equal and some restriction were in practice. This discrimination was not accepted by many educated social workers in the Mogaveera community. Prominent among them are Shri Monappa Tingalaya and Shri Srinivas Kotian etc. Yuvaka Sangha joined these stalwarts in removing this discrimination and sent their representative to the meeting called by the Dakshina Kannada Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha . Finally, so called Melantas were given equal status in the Mogaveera community which was a bold reform.

In Aide of Victims of Natural Calamities

Yuvaka Sangha reached out in its service towards various natural calamities of 1940s of Madras, Bihar, Bengal Famine, Bijapur Famine etc. by helping the victims with money and materials. During 1954, coastal Karnataka districts were hit by natural calamity by way sea erosion with flooding. Yuvaka Sangha representatives camped at native villages and collected data of the damages. They appraised the District Collector and then visited the concerned Ministers of Madras Government (it is before state reorganization) at Madras. They presented the data and claimed the compensation. It is reported more than 24 Rampani Phandus etc. got relief which enabled them to restart their earning activities.

Political Field

Yuvaka Sangha being a social institution did not indulge in politics. But it collected funds for Pandit Nehru National Fund organized after Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru released from jail in 1945. It took keen interest in Municipal affairs and campaigned for Mogaveera candidates. Shri Y. B. Kundar and Shri M. S. Dayakar had become members of Municipal Corporation at Mumbai and Mangalore respectively because of the support extended by the Yuvaka Sangha.

Sponsored Great Initiatives

Yuvaka Sangha was one of the sponsors of Maha-Mysore Fishermen’s Conference (Parishattu) in 1957 which included all fishermen communities of then Mysore State. This organization was renamed as Akila Karnataka Fishermen’s Parishattu after Karnataka State was formed on state reorganization. They have actively participated in all subsequent conferences.

Protected Fishermen’s Interests

Yuvaka Sangha took keen interest in preserving sea for fishing and participated in the protests against the pollution of sea at Karwar by Binaga Industries in 1973 and against the pollution of Gurpur river in 1975. Yuvaka Sangha also supported the protest against the draconian bill called ‘Karnataka Fisheries Conservation, Development & Regulation Bill 1977’ which proposed licensing fishing and fish marketing at all levels. Due to massive protest by Mogaveera community this bill was dropped.

Sponsored Mahalakshmi Bank

Yuvaka Sangha also sponsored Mahalakshmi Co-operative Bank Ltd., Udupi (1978) and incurred initial expenditure. For more details, please see Shree Mahalakshmi Co-operative Bank Ltd.

Mile Stones

Yuvaka Sangha celebrated Golden Jubilee in the year 1990. During 1997, Yuvaka Sangha brought out ‘Bombay Mogaveera Directory – 1997’ with around 6000 entries on Mogaveeras at Mumbai. Diamond Jubilee was celebrated in the year 2000.

Mogaveera Chambers of Commerce

Recently, an organization known as ‘Mogaveera Chambers of Commerce’ Mumbai has been lunched to organize the professionals and businessmen of Mogaveera community in Mumbai.

Organizations of Mogaveeras Abroad

A large number of Mogaveeras are working or permanently settled down abroad. There are several Mogaveera institutions created by people in different countries. Among the known institutions are

Mogaveers Bahrain (Kingdom of Bahrain) and
Mogaveers USE (Dubai – United Arab Emirates).

This well educated and well-to-do people and their institutions are not connected to the parent Mogaveera Organizations. The data is under collection and will be added later.

Summary of Mogaveera Organizations/Institutions

Mogaveeras were in forefront in organizing their society and occupation. The traditional organizations, such as, Grama Sabhas, Samyukta Patnas, Hobalies , Apex Bodies of the Mogaveera traditional organizations are estimated at 370. Mahila Samajas organized on the basis of Grama Sabhas are around 75. The Schools, colleges, and other institutions created for the purpose of education are around 35. The religious organizations, such as, Temples, Moolasthans, Bhajana Mandiras, Daivasthans , etc, is estimated at 126. Prominent Mogaveera charitable institutions including Taluka level Youth Organizations can be placed at around at 20 Fishing/Fish trade organizations, such as primary Fishermen/Fisherwomen co-operatives and their apex bodies can be taken at 75. Effort to get complete data is under way. Pending the same, total number of Mogaveeras organizations/institutions can safely be estimated at 700.

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