Origin of Mogaveeras
Mogaveera Community
Mogaveera Habitats
Mogaveera Customs
Festivals Observed
Occupations of Mogaveeras
Mogaveera Organizations
Mogaveera Religious Practices
Prominent Mogaveeras
Interpretation of Data
Appreciation of Website / Book


Information on Tulu Nadu
Pollution of Rivers and Sea
Land Ownership
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 2011
Housing Patterns
Mogaveeras Migrated Out of Coastal Villages
Earthen Wares (Vessels)
Mumbai is Second Home for Mogaveeras
Mogaveera Neighborhood Communities
Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA)

Distribution of Mogaveera population


Mogaveeras being fishermen are dependent on Arabian Sea (Mogaveeras call it as Ganga Maatha). Their villages of Mangalore Hobali (Mangalore Taluka), Barkur Hobali (Udupi Taluka) and Bagwadi Hobali (Kundapur Taluka) are situated on the sea front. The Mogaveera habitats (villages) are generally in three Talukas which can be seen from the map. A few villages are also in the State of Kerala. The Mogaveera villages are not the revenue villages but Mogaveera Grama Sabhas.

West to East

So far as the Mogaveera villages of Mangalore and Udupi Taluka (Mangalore Hobali and Barkur Hobali) are concerned, the western limits in many a case is the Arabian Sea and the eastern limit of Mogaveera community villages can be taken as National Highway 17 (N.H. 66). In some cases, this limit stretches up to the Kankan Railway track and beyond. The Mogaveera habitats in this region used to be called Mogaveera Patna. However, in the case of villages (Kudiges) in Bagwadi Hobali (Kundapura Taluka), a few villages are sea abutting and a large number of Mogaveera villages are far away from Arabian Sea and a few villages are situated around twenty five kilo meters away from the sea shore.

South to North

The southern tip of Mogaveera villages scattered along coastline is Uppala in Kasaragod taluka in the State of Kerala. In the State of Karnataka, Mogaveera villages begin from Mangalore Taluka (South Kenara District). Coastal villages of Udupi Taluka (Udupi District) are generally Mogaveera villages. In Kundapur Taluka, only a few coastal villages are predominantly populated by Mogaveeras.


Mogaveera villages spread from Uppala (State of Kerala) to Manur (Kundapura Taluka) are spread over a stretch of around 120 kilo meters. Many of Mogaveera villages of Kundapura Taluka are situated away from sea shore and deep inside beyond N.H.17 (66) and Konkan Railway track. Generally, it can be said that Mogaveera villages are located in between Arabian Sea coast and Konkan Railway track.

Ullal Beach
Baikampadi Beach
Shambavi River joining sea at Mulky
Chitrapu side view of Mulky harbour 
Padubidri Beach
Uchila Beach

Udyavara Beach

Malpe Beach (North side)
Bengre (Hungarkatte) harbour


In Mangalore Taluka (Hobali), river Netravathi crosses N.H.17 (66) between Mangalore and Ullal and flow north-west passing through several Mogaveera villages to join Sea at old Mangalore harbour. River Gurupur crosses N.H.17 (66) at Kuloor and flow south-west once again passing through several Mogaveera villages to join sea at old Mangalore harbour. At Pavanje river Nandini crosses N.H.17 (66) and flow North-west through several Mogaveera villages. Both rivers,  Nandini and Shanbhavi join and flow into sea at Mulky Harbour. On the other side, Shambavi River crosses N.H.17 (66) at Mulky town flows south-west crossing several Mogaveera villages to join sea at Mulky harbour. A small river crosses N.H.17 (66) at west of Padubidri town, flows south-west cutting through several Mogaveera villages to Hejmadi to join sea. A small river crosses N.H.17 (66) at Pangala (Katpady) flows north-west passing though several Mogaveera villages to join another river which crosses N.H.17 (66) at Udyavara and flows to Malpe harbour to join sea. Similarly, river Suvarna crosses N.H.17 (66) at Uppoor flows west and joined by river Sithanadi and another tributary flowing from north to south also joins the Sithanadi which joins sea at Kodi-Bengre (Hungarkatte) harbour. In Kundapura Taluka (Bagwadi Hobali ), river Maladi, river Chakra and river Kollur passes through Mogaveera villages.

River view near Babbarya Paade, Malpe

Big & Small Harbours

Whenever the above said rivers joining Arabian Sea, all season harbours, such as, New Mangalore and fishing harbours, such as, of Old Mangalore port, Malpe, Hangarkatte, Gangolli, Kundapura are in operation. In between these fishing harbours, there are many fish landing sites. These are centers of fishing trade and commerce. There are lighthouses at Mangalore, Suratkal and Kaup beaming search lights to guide the ships in the night.

Feeder Roads

All the Mogaveera villages are well connected by feeder roads from N. H.17 (66) and coastal internal roads. At many a place, one can travel through the Mogaveera villages without touching N. H.17 (66) for around 10 to 15 kilo meters at a stretch. At some of these feeder roads bus services are also available. With sandy soil and ample water resources, coconut plantation and variety of fruit bearing trees, such as, mango, cashew nut, jack-fruit, etc. are grown.

Land Ownership

Unique Background

It is significant to note that Mangalore, Udupi and Kundapura Talukas were parts of undivided Dakshina Kannada District of erstwhile Madras Presidency. After the State Reorganization in 1956 they became part of Mysore State. It was renamed as State of Karnataka in 1973. State of Karnataka was formed including four districts from undivided State of Bombay, (Marathi), two districts of Madras Presidency, (Tamil), and three districts of State of Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh-Telugu).

Land Holdings

Initially, Mogaveera settlements were on land abutting the sea shore which were no-man’s land ( Tharekadav/Kumki ) and were simply occupied. The acquisition of land on rental basis or Chala - Geni meaning paying yearly rent was the beginning. Later many people started taking the land on Moola - Geni (a system of semi-ownership) in which such tenants cannot be evicted (if proper rent is paid). The purchase of land was the next step. In many instances, Grama Sabhas purchased land and allocated land enabling its members to construct houses.

 Early Settlements

 In the initial stage Mogaveeras lived near river beds, large tanks, reservoirs etc. in hinder land. The inland fisheries data shows that still a large number of fishermen live near water resources. The existences of their Aadi (Aalade) in the interior villages bear witness to this fact. The places where present Mogaveera villages situate were shallow water swamps during the monsoon or perennial rivers existed. These rivers at times changed their course and joined sea at different places. Due to various reasons, the shallow water and small rivers dried or were filled up and habitable land became available for construction of houses. Once this facilities are available, Mogaveeras migrated to sea shore for the convenience of marine (sea) fishing. At this stage, group fishing, such as, Y-Bale, Patte-Bale and Rampani came into operation. The shift from interiors to sea shore had taken place from later part of nineteenth century or early part of twentieth century.

Housing Patterns

Early Housing

Mogaveera Community used to have housing arrangement in three parts, the main house, a small hut ( Kotya in Tulu) and resting place ( Chappar in Tulu). In the beginning, even the main house used to be made of bamboo or coconut tree beam frames covered by coconut palm leaves and rice weeds ( Byetha - Maad) or grass (Mulitha - Maad) which needs to be changed every year. The walls were made of woven coconut leaves which are called Thatti . The floors of the house and court yard were made of red soil smothered by application of a coat of cow dung. Kotya was used for cooking and storing useful things and  Benderda Kotya meant for taking hot water bath which was a luxury for a few. A separate place known as Chappar to store fishing boats, nets etc. and also used by men folk to stay during the day as well as for sleeping in the night.

Later Houses

Well defined houses including large houses known as Suttumadeleda ille were built by the well-to-do families. The main structure had two extensions from both the sides (left and right) which were joined by a smaller housing structure in the front side forming a rectangle.  The right side of the extension was used as domestic storage space for dry fish, paddy, coconuts etc. and the left side of the extension was used as kitchen for daily cooking and storage of cooking accessories. The smaller housing structure in front was used for multi-purposes, including space for sleeping etc. These elaborately designed houses used to have a spacious court-yard in the middle portion where a Tulsi Katte used to be installed and in some cases coriander plants were also planted. The open space within the enclosure was normally covered by old nets to protect from birds the rice and fish while drying within the enclosure.
Bathrooms & Lavatories

Bath room inside the house was unheard of. Men took bath near the well or in the village pond. The ladies took bath in the enclosure erected around nearest coconut tree so that the water used for bath nourished the coconut tree. Washing clothes was also similarly done outside the house near the ponds or invariably adjacent to coconut tree. Lavatory inside the house was considered inauspicious. Lavatory for men used to be sea shore and ladies used some enclosures near the house. Controlling the natures’ call till the morning had become a habit. Later when the lavatories were built, they were invariably built far away from the house.

Coastal Vasthu Shasthra

In the coastal villages, the rain hits from south-west direction during the monsoon season. A supplementary rain used to fall in the month of November and December from the direction of north-east direction. Taking into account the raising of the sun from the east and setting at west and the normal wind blowing from south-west only, the houses were built facing north or east. In the north facing houses, the kitchen used to be at South-east side (Agneya), middle portion used to be used as living room and the western side room is for sleeping etc. The front side known as Chawadi (modern hall) is for sitting & eating etc. Outer sitting place was known as Jagali (modern sit-out). Similarly in east facing houses kitchen used to be on the western side, living room in the middle known as Padsale (Anthara). The storage space was known as Atta, Kuthatta and the location of Jagali in the eastern side. The bath room is known as Bendrda Kottya. In both these arrangements, the morning sun rays enter the houses and harsh sun rays of setting sun are avoided. It also avoided the lashing rain in the monsoon. No houses facing south or west were built. However, some west facing temple can be seen but we may not come across west facing Bhoothasthana (Daivasthana).

Mangalore Tile Houses

All type of houses got a better roofing facility on the arrival of famous Mangalore tiles. Majority of houses converted to this roofing and better and spacious houses were built. At this stage also, the Boothasthana (Daivada Manchav) used to be inside the houses. Only in a few cases these were installed in specially built Boothasthana (Daivada Gudi). Earlier bath rooms and lavatories were built away from the houses. In many a cases, these were near the rivers etc. The water for bath and flushing of the lavatories were manually filled in a small tank near these structures.

Modern (Concrete) Houses

Still later, well planned concrete houses were built where bath room, lavatory and pooja rooms for Vedic Gods were built inside the house. House Warming Ceremonies used to be conducted by Brahmin priests with Vasthu Homa etc. followed by Ghana Homa , Sathyanarayana Pooja etc. followed by lunch.

Bhoothasthana (Daivasthana)

Bhoothasthana of Mane Daiva ( House hold Daivasthana) was normally situated in a corner inside the house on a Daivada Manchav. On Sankranti days and on festival days flowers and water in a small copper urn used to be offered. Annual Thambila ( Bhoothogu Malpunu ) starts after the sun set and all proceedings take place inside the house except offering of Rakthahaara which used to done in the court yard of the house.

Earthen Wares (Vessels)

Till sixth decade of twentieth century, most of the cooking and other household vessels including Kadya (large round pots with narrow necks) for fetching and watering coconut trees used to be made of mud only. There were separate types of vessels known as Kara, for cooking rice and for separating the rice from water, known as Nuppu Kabidunu using Thatti Kudupu made of creepers were used to filter and the wooden Marai was used to collect the Theli (rice water). Rough metal containers were used for storing spices which were to be used on daily basis. Specimens of metal containers for storing spices, various types Kadya/Kara and wooden Marai and other day-to-day earthen wares (vessels) can be seen in the pictures. For curry, a vessel known as Bisale and for covering the same Bawadi was used. Even food used to be served in Gaddav for rice and Pallai or Kiyna Gaddav etc. for curry.

Serving spoons were made of coconut shell and bamboo handle known as Kail . Kudupe used to be the lunch-box to dispatch food for men. Gurke for heating water for bath and this type of vessels are also used for boiling peddy, storing Neeruppad of raw mango etc.  Pikdaani (Spittoon) was used for spitting the Paan/Tobacco juice. These spittoons were made of metal and cleaned and polished to make it presentable.  Various shapes of polished stones were used for grinding while preparing spices, old ‘presses’ for preparing semai a delicacy made out of ground rice. Mud vessels were also used for storing day-to-day used food items. Some pictures of household earthen pots are given here.Before using the new raw mud vessels they are once again put into fire for further baking so that it will not break easily. To make useable, vessels are rubbed by the leaves of tree called Pongarda Mara and filled with water for some time to remove the smell. It is believed that the fish curry made in Bisale (mud vessel) is superior in taste compared with the curry made in any other metal vessel. Even the milk boiled in earthen pot has a pleasant taste.

Mogaveera Neighbourhood Communities

Co-existence with other communities

Mogaveera villages have their own identities. However, many of the communities listed below co-existed and in many cases inter-dependent and complimented each other’s needs. All the neighborhood communities had a common Bari or Bali which can be traced even now and they have been used at the time of marriage etc. by all communities who follow Aliya Santhana Kattu . It is also interesting to note that those people converted into other religions are also having these Bali etc. The bond of common language of Tulu and Kannada and other cultural ties are keeping all these communities closely inter-connected. Similarly, all the neighborhood communities have common Aadi-Aalade and in some cases still worship together. These communities can be grouped together as under.

Communities follow Aliya Santhana Kattu

(i) Billava community also known as Poojari, Bhaida, Panditha etc. is the prominent community living and working with Mogaveera community. This community is predominantly, agriculturists and toddy tapers. They were also good as priests in Bhootasthana, Daiva Dharshan/Kola etc. Apart from other religious practices, they have Garadi where Koti-Chennaya legendry heroes of Tulu Nadu are worshipped. They have also adopted the teachings of Guru Narayana Swamy and have built several temples and Bhajana Mandiras.

(ii) Maliyali Billava (Belchada) is another neighbourhood community which is also known as Thiya Samaja.

(iii) Madiwala (washermen/barber) used to be part of all Mogaveera religious functions from birth to death and village Daivas Dharshana or Kola, etc.

(iv) Devadiga, Sherigara & Moily community (preferred to be called as Devadiga ) which attends certain duties at temples and part of traditional village band ‘Vaadya’ .

(v) Banta or Nadavaru is the community name. Shetty, Chowta, Aalva, Hegde, Aarasu,Melanta”, Poonja, Rai, Bhandari etc. are their surnames. This community is predominantly agriculturists and landlords. Their prominent house-holds are known as ‘Guthu’ .

(vi) The community known as Pambada, Nalkedaye etc. are good in performing Kola etc.

(vii) Two communities of Harijans , one group of Harijan is specialized in house building (mason) and the other are involved in basket weaving etc.

Smaller communities -

(viii) Ganiga (oil extractor),

(ix) Sapaliga,

(x) Bannagara,

(xi) Balegara (Bangle sellers),

(xii) Shettigara (Weavers),

(xiii) Kumbara (pot maker) are integral part of Mogaveera village life.

Communities Follow Makkala Santhana Kattu

These communities can also be identified as wearers of ‘’ Janiwara (sacred thread).

(i) Aachari community which specializes in (a) wood work (carpentry) (b) Black smith (work relating iron etc.) and (c) gold work (gold smith).

(ii) The people known as Konkanastha because of their language Konkani and migrants of Konkan region are traditionally traders and agriculturists.

(iii) Brahmins who are known as priests in the temple are also part of the composite society.

Communities from other Religions

A. Muslim Community

(i). The Muslim community can be divided in Byari community who speak Malayalam language and

(ii) Turkerlu community who speak Urdu (Hindi). Both these communities are in trade and commerce. Byari community is major participants in fishing and fish trade.

B. Christian Community

(i) A Few families of Roman Catholics and

(ii) Protestants (Christians) are also residing in the neighbourhood of Mogaveeras. All these communities are inter-dependent on each other and supplement the needs of others.


Tulu in Mangalore & Barkuru Hobalies 

The language spoken (mother tongue) by people residing in villages of Mangalore and Barkur Hobalies (Mangalore & Udupi talukas) is Tulu (even though few villages are in the State of Kerala). Kannada language is learnt only at school. Tulu is said to have its own script (lipi). The Tulu alphabets and Tulu numbers are published by Shree Manjunatheshwara Samscrithi Samshodhana Prathisthana, Dharmasthala. Tulu alphabets and Tulu numbers are given below:

(Acknowledgement: Dharmasthala Manjunatheweshwara Sanskriti Sanshodhana Prathisthana, Dharmasthala and Karnataka Tulu Sahithya Academy, Mangalore.)

Tulu Literature

Christain Missioneries have studied Tulu language and compiled a few litrary works. Tulu Grammar (Brigel – 1872), Tulu Dictionary (Manner – 1886), Tulu Proverbs (Manners 1874) etc. Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy is trying to publish Tulu books. The Tulu language is now introduced as a third language in the schools of Karnataka State.

Information on Tulu Nadu

Names of seven days in Tulu/Kannada and English

In Tulu

In Kannada

In English






















Names of the sixty Samvatsaras

(1) Prabhava

(2) Vihava

(3) Shukla

(4) Pramodootha

(5) Prajothpathi

(6) Angirasa

(7) Shreemukha

(8) Bhava

(9) Yuva

(10) Dhathu

(11) Eshwara

(12) Bahudanya

(13) Pramathi

(14) Vikrama

(15) Vishu

(16) Chitrabhanu

(17) Swabhanu

(18) Tharana

(19) Parthiva

(20) Vyaya

(21) Saravajithu

(22) Sarvadhari

(23) Virodhi

(24) Vikritha

(25) Khara

(26) Nandana

(27) Vijaya

(28) Jaya

(29) Manmatha

(30) Dhurmukha

(31) Hevilambi

(32) Vilambi

(33) Vikari

(34) Sharvari

(35) Plava

(36) Shubhakrathu

(37) Shobhanakrathu

(38) Krodhi Viswasu

(39) Vishwasu

(40) Parabhava

(41) Plavanga

(42) Keelaka

(43) Saumya

(44) Sadharana

(45) Virodhikratha

(46) Paribhavi

(47) Pramadhicha

(48) Aanada

(49) Rakshasa

(50) Nalha

(51) PingalaKalayukthi

(52) Kalayukthi

(53) Sidharthi

(54) KraudriDhurmathi

(55) Dhurmathi

(56) Dhundhubi

(57) Rudhi Rodhgari

(58) Rakthashi

(59) Krodhana

(60) Ksyaya

Navagrahas (nine planets)

There are nine Grahas known as Navagrahas . They are; Chandra (Soma), Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra, Shani, Ravi, Rahu and Ketu. The seven days correspond to seven Grahas as mentioned above excluding the last Grahas of Rahu and Kethu.

Two Pakshas

Two cycles of Moon are known as Shukla Paksha and Krishna Paksha . From ‘New Moon Day’ to ‘Full Moon Day’ is known as Shukla Paksha which ends with Hunnime (Full moon day) and from ‘Full Moon Day’ to “new Moon Day’ is known as Krishna Pakasha which ends with Amavashe .

Fifteen Tithies

Names of fifteen Tithies i n a Paksha (fifteen days cycle)

















Kannada Language in Bagwadi Hobali

In Kundapura Taluka (Bagwadi Hobali ), the main language spoken and written is Kannada. As Kannada language literature is well developed and widely available, they are not discussed here.  Large parts of the information given above are applicable to them also.

Tulu Months

Names of twelve Tulu months correspond to Sauramana months are given below. Tulu Sankranthi comes in the middle of English calendar and corresponding names of two English calendar months are given.



































































Pollution of Rivers and Sea

Polluted Rivers

Many small perennial rivers were encroached upon and are now non-existent. A few which have survived are reduced to insignificant rivulets only exist in monsoon for discharging dirty water into sea. We can witness full flow of water only in monsoon in the major rivers of coastal Karnataka. The river Netravathi which joins sea at the old Mangalore harbour, which was known to provide fish during monsoon is now not a source of fishing any more. The similar is the story about the other rivers which we come cross while travelling on the N.H.17 (66) at Koolur, Pavanje, Mulky, Udyavara, Kalyanpur/Uppoor, Hannover, Malaadi and Chakra rivers. Due to the low discharge of water from these rivers, once flourishing harbours have now become inoperative or cannot be operated at all times.The above picture shows the present state of polluted river. The quality and quantity of water declined in course of time by dumping of untreated industrial and city waste and indiscriminate building of dams for irrigation purposes.

Diversion of Netravathi Rivers

Karnataka Government is planning to implement this project against the advice of technocrats, environmentalists, farmers, fishermen and other people. The project is to impound Netravathi river water flowing into the sea during the monsoon and supply it to the water starved interior districts of Karnataka. The assumption is that the rain water flowing into the sea during monsoon is a total waste. But this is the common man’s view. The scientists of CMFRI have come out with result of their World Bank sponsored study in 2007. As per the study the rain water performs important biological functions, by bringing in nutrients for the fish and other organisms, helps to maintain salinity level and dissolved oxygen in the sea water. If the flow of water gets reduced by more than one third of the normal flow, it will impact the fisheries severely. There are few dams already on the Netravati; two more are coming up for the SEZ which will result in drying up of the river much earlier during summer. What will happen if the diversion takes place is to be seen, but that might be too late to revive the river.

Decision based on wrong presumptions

The present policy of the Government of Karnataka to divert the river Netravathi to irrigate the hinder lands on the plea that during the monsoon the excess water flow into sea is a waste and can better utilized by diverting it into irrigate perched land. The arguments advanced by the Government of Karnataka a show the ignorance of facts.

The Government should set the priority for the use of water. Presently less water flows into the sea due to erratic rain fall. The reduction in discharge of river water adversely affects the coastal ground water and marine life. After meeting the growing demands for drinking water of expanding city of Mangalore and existing industries, there is hardly any surplus water which can be diverted to other purposes.

Pollution of Sea

Due to continuous discharge of polluted industrial effluents from MRPL near Mangalore and many other industries like BASF, MCF, KIOCL etc., as well as runoff from the New Mangalore Port which handles the cargoes like coal, hazardous chemicals and iron ore also adds to the sea pollution. This has drastically affected the fishery resources in the Karnataka coast already over exploited by the increased number of boats and modern technology to identify and capture fish. The fishing industry is likely decline in the near future affecting the livelihood of laces of fishermen and government revenue. The above picture show the extreme case of sea pollution in which fish dies due to pollution and washed into the beach.

Industrial waste disposal

The project under implementation at Nandikoor, which a coal based thermal power production unit, once fully operational will extend this barren stretch beyond Malpe. Recently CPCB has declared the Mangalore coastal waters as number 1 polluted in Karnataka. The report by the CPCB after analyzing the air, water and land pollution has arrived at the Comprehensive Pollution Index. As per this index while Ankaleshvar tops the all India list, Mangalore and Bhadravati top the Karnataka list. The mitigative measures promised by the industries before establishment are not implemented, monitoring agencies who are maintained by spending huge amount of money, cannot be trusted with their report about the composition of the effluents and the pollution control boards simply cannot force these industries to control their discharge of polluted effluents. (Acknowledgement: Shri Upendra Hosbettu, Suratkal)

Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 2011


Originally enacted in 1991 by a notification, under The Environment Protection Act 1986, but found inadequate to address all the issues concerning the development and conservation, was subjected to frequent amendments. The consultative meetings with the stakeholders were held with all along the coastal states. Mogaveeras also participated in several deliberations and representations to the Central and State Governments through the local representatives. A final notification was issued in January 2011, incorporating suggestions from the stakeholders.
Basic Classifications

CRZ is applicable to

area between High Tide Line(HTL) and Low Tide Line (LTL)
500 meters from the HTL to land 
100 meters on both banks of rivers, back waters and other water bodies having tidal effect, till (salt content ratio 5:1000 units ) or width of the river, whichever is less
mass of water and sea bed from LTL till 12 nautical miles into the sea and the water and river bed of inland water bodies having tidal affect and
the area between 500 meter line and the hazard line. The presentation below explains the CRZ application in sea shore and river beds.

Prohibited & Permitted Activities in CRZ

The area covered under this notification is divided into CRZ I, II, III, IV and V. Lists of prohibited and permitted activities are given below:

Starting new and expansion of existing industrial activities are prohibited. But the nuclear plants, SEZs (excluding polluting industries), production of non-conventional electrical energy, production of water using sea water are permitted.
Production and storage or discharging of dangerous substances including petroleum products is prohibited. But, fishing related activities are permitted.
Starting off or expanding of solid waste discharging units are prohibited. But, discharge of water after purification is allowed.
Discharge into any water resources any non-purified industrial waste and municipal wastes are prohibited.
Storing or filling of any area with municipal waste is prohibited.
Discharging of ash or other pollutants by the thermal electricity units into any water resources are prohibited.
Reclaiming sea by whatever way is prohibited. But, such activities for the purpose of harbour and to prevent sea erosion are permitted.
Mining sand or other minerals and destroying of sand dunes are prohibited.
Any fresh construction within the low and high tide line area is prohibited.
Some activities are permitted with the prior approvals of Ministry of Environment, New Delhi.

CRZ – Zone I (Zone I)

Zone I is the area between low tide and high tide which may be submerged easily. In this zone, nuclear plants, laying of pipes for oil, electricity supply, and harbour facilities are permitted. The areas that are ecologically sensitive and the geomorphologic features which play a role in the maintaining the integrity of the coast which are listed and could be declared as CRZ I.

CRZ – Zone II (Zone II)

Zone II is the developed area within the municipal limits where all basic municipal facilities are available. Here subject to development rules and with the approvals of municipality housing and other development activities, such as, redevelopment of residential buildings are permitted. But no change in usage or size of the unit is permitted. New constructions are allowed in to the existing road (1991) parallel to the sea shore or the authorized structures on the seaward side.

CRZ – Zone III (Zone III)

The Zone III is the coastal area which is not included in Zone I, & Zone II and areas which are not developed within the municipal area. This is divided into two categories.(a) No Development Zone (NDZ) 200 meters from the HTL. Only repairs and reconstruction of dwelling units are allowed but limited to two floors or maximum 9 meters only. No new structures are allowed. Only coastal communities including traditional fishing communities (like Mogaveeras) can build their houses after 100 meters of this NDZ. Facilities, such as, hospitals, schools, toilets, water supply systems, drainage system etc. can be constructed. Similarly, facilities for fishing related activities can also be created. Agricultural activities can be carried out except within SEZs.

(b) Between 200 meters & 500 meters construction of houses, repair/reconstruction are permitted. Further, subject to approval of Ministry of Environment, units of hospitality industry, recycling or purification plants are permitted.


the water area from the Low Tide Line to twelve nautical miles on the seaward side; include the water area of the tidal influenced water body from the mouth of the water body at the sea up to the influence of tide which is measured as five parts per thousand during the driest season of the year.

Special specified areas

The following specified areas need special consideration for the purpose of protecting the critical coastal environment and difficulties faced by local communities. They are (i) CRZ area falling within municipal limits of Greater Mumbai (ii) The CRZ areas of Kerala including the backwaters and backwater islands and (iii) CRZ areas of Goa.

Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA)

CVCA areas, such as, Sunderbans region of West Bengal and other ecologically sensitive areas identified as under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and managed with the involvement of coastal communities including fishermen.

Advisory Boards

 Under this Notification, Central and State level Advisory Boards will be constituted.

The Hazard Line

 Under the pretext of safeguarding the life and property of the coastal communities, a hazard line is introduced after the 500 meters of CRZ where no construction would be allowed right from the high tide line. The local communities may be forced to give up the land under this provision by making a declaration.

Adverse effect

The CRZ Notification under The Environment Protection Act 1986 was supposed to protect the natural resources of sea and water bodies as well as protect the interests of the original inhabitants but due to inappropriate implementation, the notification provides discretionary powers which may deprive the fishermen community their traditional habitat and livelihood which is contrary to the real intentions of the original enactment, i.e. The Environment Protection Act., 1986.

Inappropriate Remedial Measures

 Karnataka cabinet’s decision (2011) declared the entire Coastal stretch as CRZ II to allow tourism projects on the coast. The proliferation of these projects will certainly hamper the free access to the beach for the fishermen. Since the land price is likely to go up, fishermen may be tempted to sell their land.

Major Beneficial Changes in CRZ 2011

The major  beneficial changes were that ‘No Development Zone’ is reduced to 100 meters in CRZ III only for the benefit of coastal traditional communities which include Mogaveeras to build, rebuild their dwellings and the less developed coastal areas come under CRZ IIl where the first 200 meters from the High Tide Line (HTL) is declared ‘No Development Zone’.

Fishermen’s Response

A modified version of CRZ known as Coastal Management Zone is abandoned. However, permissions given to the so called non polluting industries as part SEZs under the CRZ notification need to be carefully examined. The contradiction in the stated intentions of the Legislation (The Environment Protection Act 1986) and the Notification (CRZ) can be challenged in appropriate courts of law.

(Acknowledgment): Shri Upendra Hosbet, Suratkal has contributed all in puts in respect of Coastal Regulation Zone)

Mogaveeras Migrated Out of Coastal Villages

The Mogaveeras have settled down in other parts of Karnataka, Maharashtra and other places. They are categorized as those who have settled (i) in the cities of State of Karnataka (ii) in the State of Maharashtra (iii) in other parts of India (iv) in the Middle East countries, (v) in the western countries and (vi) in other countries. The Mogaveeras residing outside their native villages are distinct and better qualified. Mogaveeras settled down in adjacent villages in Mangalore, Udupi and Kundapura Talukas have been dealt with in Chapter “Mogaveera Organizations” under the heading “Mogaveeras settled in adjacent villages.” Therefore, they are not included here.

In the cities of State of Karnataka

There is a Mogaveera Sangha of people residing at Bangalore. In Bangalore, Mogaveera Sangha has enrolled more than 800 families. The number of people permanently residing in cities of State of Karnataka is considerable. The details of people and their institutions in these cities are collected and included in Chapter “Mogaveera Organizations”

In the cities of State of Maharashtra

Mogaveera community appears to be on the move all along and after settling down on the sea shore at coastal villages of Karnataka. After having gained knowledge of navigation, they started exploring the distant regions. By using Naga or Pandi , (local cargo sail ships) they reached several ports in India and some foreign countries. Because of this experience, they were the first to arrive in Mumbai from coastal Karnataka by way of sea. They took up jobs at harbour and commercial establishments at Mumbai. Even though the education level was low, their hard work and honesty earned them good employment opportunities. The early settlers resided and worked in so called ‘Fort Area’ and their reach was only up to Bandra in the beginning. Way back in the year 1879 Mogaveeras have started their institutions at Mumbai. For details please see Shreemadhbharatha Mandali and Mogaveera Hobali Sabha at Mumbai in the Chapter “Mogaveera Organizations”.

Mumbai is Second Home for Mogaveeras

Introduction: In the State of Karnataka, we can find Mogaveera community people in all the coastal villages of Karnataka. Next to their original habitat at coastal Karnataka, the largest concentration of Mogaveera community is in Mumbai region which is known as Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Now, Mogaveeras are residing in all municipal areas of Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA).

Ancient History of Mumbai

The early history records that the seven islands comprising of Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Woman’s island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel and Matunga-Sion were joined together to form Mumbai. The original inhabitants of Mumbai Kolis (fishermen) called their land as Mumbai after their Goddess Mumbadevi. Mumbadevi temple at Kalbadevi area is still an attraction for the people visiting the city. There are still several Koliwadas, such as, Sion Koliwada, Versova Koliwada, Khar-Danda Koliwada, Mahim Koliwada etc. even today. Over the years, original Mumbai was part of Magadh Empire ( Mauryans ) of Ashoka the Great, Satvahana, Silaharas, Yadavas etc. The ownership of these islands has passed through many hands and came to hands of Sultans of Gujarat (1400). Many years later the seven islands have came to the possession of Portuguese (1534). The Portuguese named the seven islands ‘BomBaia’ meaning ‘good bay’. When King Charles II of England married (1661) the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza he received the seven islands ( BomBaia ) as part of dowry. Thereafter these islands were leased to East India Company. British named this region as Bombay. Finally, the British crown became the rulers of Mumbai along with other possessions of East India Company in India. Mogaveeras always called Bombay as Mumbai.

Contributions of Rulers of Mumbai

The Mauryans (Magadh Empire) have built Kanheri, Mahakali and Elephanta caves. The Sultanas of Gujarat built the Darghs of Mahim and Haji Ali. The Portuguese have built Portuguese Church at Prabhadevi and St. Andrews Church at Bandra. They have also built forts at Sion, Mahim, Bandra and Bassien. The British are credited with building of city of Bombay connecting seven islands.

Developers of Mumbai

Reclamation was done to plug Worli and Mahalaxmi and Hornby Vellard was built in 1784. The Sion Causeway connecting Bombay to Salsette was built in 1803. Colaba Causeway connecting Colaba Island to Bombay was built in 1838. A causeway connecting Mahim and Bandra was built in 1845. It was said that Lady Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy (wife of First Baronet Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy) incurred all expenses for this project. The Wadia family (ship builders from Surat) had funded Bombay Port Trust and built Princess Dock in 1885 and Victoria Dock and Mereweather Dock in 1891. Later Alexandra Dock was built in 1914. Tatas built Taj Mahal Hotel and started first airline i.e. Air India. The Godrej produced first vegetarian soap. Cowasji Nanabhai Davar established first cotton mill, Bombay Spinning Mill, in 1854. Premchand Roychand, a Guajarati businessman, started Bombay Stock Exchange.

Spread of Mogaveeras’ Habitat

Mogaveeras may have been witness to all that was happening from 1800 onwards in Mumbai but little written documents are available to substantiate the facts. Once settled, they started to imprint their culture in their adopted habitat. Mogaveeras have built their own social and charity institutions. They have also built their own schools, colleges, housing societies, temples, co-operative bank etc. within the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai.

Pioneers in Housing field

To provide residential flats to Mogaveera community, Mogaveera Vyavasthapa Mandali, Mumbai had sponsored Shree Mahalakshmi Co-operative Housing Society Ltd.  and construction of the 242 flats took place during 1962-1985. Similarly, public spirited Mogaveera pioneers who were working in nationalised banks and insurance companies have promoted nine co-operative housing societies at Mumbai and provided approximately 300 flats to employees of their respective companies.
Brief information is given in tabular form below:

Sr. No
Year of Construction
No. of Flats
1 Venkatesh Salian, Hosabettu (Reserve Bank of India)    
  i) RBI Employees Sushil CHS Ltd., Dahisar (West), Mumbai
  ii) RBI Employees Lakshman CHS Ltd., Borivali (West), Mumbai
  iii) RBI Employees Geethanjali CHS Ltd., Andheri (West), Mumbai
  iv) RBI Employees Balaji CHS Ltd., Amboli-Andheri (West), Mumbai
2 Madhav T. Puthran, Padubidri (National Insurance Co.Ltd.)
  i) Eksar Gurukripa CHS Ltd., Borivali (West), Mumbai
  ii) Ajantha Vishal CHS Ltd., Borivali (West), Mumbai
  iii) Vasanth Prakash CHS Ltd., Andheri (West), Mumbai
3 U.Ramachandra, Udyavar (Bank of Baroda)
  Bank of Baroda Employees Amar-Jyoth CHS Ltd., Borivali (W), Mumbai
4 Damodar Karkera, Yermal Thanka (Reserve Bank of India)
  RBI Hemal CHS Ltd., Andheri (West), Mumbai.

Therefore, Mogaveeras contribution in providing residential accommodation to the needy people in an affordable price is praiseworthy. Details are given in Chapter “Mogaveera Organizations”. Mogaveera community should take into account the spread of Mogaveera population in Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) region.

Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA)

Now Mogaveeras have settled down in Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) consisting of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Thane Municipal Corporation, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, Kalyan-Dombivali Municipal Corporation, Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation, Ulhasnager Municipal Corporation, Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municiap Corporation and Vasai-Virar Municipal Corporation and nine smaller Municipal Councils of Alibag, Ambernath, Karjat, Khopoli, Kulgaon Badlapur, Matheran, Panvel, Pen and Uran are included in this region. MMRDA covers four districts i.e., Mumbai District, Mumbai South District, Thane District and part of Raigad District. Each district consists of several Talukas. The MMRDA has an area of 4,355 square kilo meters and a population of 1.8 crores. It is linked with Mumbai through the Mumbai Suburban Railway system and a large network of roads. A graphic map of suburban Railway network is given.

Distribution of Mogaveera Population

Fish and fish trading as main occupation have changed. Presently only 50%

of the Mogaveera population resides at native villages. Out of the 50% population of Mogaveeras residing at native place, the larger percentage of people are engaged in other than fishing and fish trade and the Mogaveeras residing in Bagwadi Hobali (Kundapur Taluka) are mainly agriculturists.

Out of 50% of the population migrated out of the native villages, a bulk reside in the cities of state of Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Mogaveeras migrated into interiors Karnataka, have organized themselves and formed Mogaveera Sabhas/Sanghas, such as, Bangalore Mogaveera Sangha in the city of Bangalore and Mogaveera Mahajana Sangha in several districts of Karnataka. However, migrated Mogaveeras residing in cities of Belgaum, Dharwad, Hubli, Mysore etc. appears have not formed any Mogaveera organizations. For more details, please refer to "Other Mogaveera Organizations" under the main chapter "Mogaveera Organizations".

Out of 50% of the Mogaveeras migrated out of native villages, a bulk reside in cities of State of Maharashtra. A large portion of this population is residing at Mumbai (MMRDA) which can be roughly put into 10% of Mogaveera population.

Mogaveera community should take into account the spread of Mogaveera population in MMRDA region and start organizing their people according to the geographical locations. It means that each municipal area should have their own appropriate sub-area groups organized at grass-route level and all such sub-area organizations should form an apex body of Mogaveeras at the MMRDA region. This will help to have an effective Mogaveera organization truly representing all the Mogaveeras at MMRDA region.

Migrated Mogaveeras are also residing in other cities of Maharashtra, such as, Poona, Sholapur etc. These Mogaveeras have not formed any formal Mogaveera organizations. Migrated Mogaveeras have also residing world over and many have formed formal organizations. All details are not available.

To sum up, as of now, Mogaveera community does not even know approximate number of Mogaveeras and all places where Mogaveeras are residing. For more details, please also see Chapter "Interpretation of Data".

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